Solovetsky Islands Solovki or - the largestan archipelago in the White Sea, an area of about 350 square meters. km. It consists of six major islands: - Solovki - Anzersky - Big Zayatsky - Small Zayatsky - Large Muksalma - Small Muksalmai more than a hundred small islands.
In 1992, Solovetsky Archipelago is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The territory of the islands and the adjacent waters oftoday are the reserve. The archipelago has about 630 rivers and lakes. The special microclimate of the Solovetsky Islands due to its geographical position - 165 km from the Polar circle line. In winter the temperature can drop to -45 degrees C, and short summers and frequent rains contribute to the constant dampness. Despite the weather, bad roads and poor infrastructure, visit the Solovetsky Islands tends more and more tourists. The rich history, many monuments of culture and archeology, nature and wildlife of the north, and the Solovetsky Monastery Solovki Special Purpose Camp (SLON) - all this attracts those who are going to visit this place.
Solovetsky monastery and a fortress
In the XV century, a monk of the Valaam Monastery and SavvatyGerman monk arrived on Solovki in search of a solitary place for prayer and reflection. Where is now Savvatiy Skit, they erected a cross and built a cell and began the history of the Solovetsky Monastery. More than five years of German and Savvaty spent in prayer and hard work, in 1435 Savvaty died. In his place, Herman led the young monk Zosima, who on the first day had a wonderful stay on the island temple. At the spot where Zosima had a vision, hermits built a church in the name of the Transfiguration. Hearing about such a unique location, and other residents began to arrive on the island. In 1436 Archbishop Jonah gave permission to establish a monastery. Abbot of the monastery became Zosima.
During the war in 1571, when close toSolovki Swedish ships appeared, Ivan the Terrible decided to build a wooden fortress. And in 1582 to replace a wooden construction of a stone fortress begins. Throughout its history, Solovetsky monastery experienced many unfortunate events - Solovetskyuprising, which lasted 8 years, attacked British ships during the Crimean War and throughout its existence it served as a place of exile. In 1920 the monastery was closed, and later in the monastery organize Solovki prison camp (SLON), who in 1937 converted to Solovetsky prison special purpose (STON). The revival of the monastery began only in 1967 - at the Solovki Museum-Reserve was created. Since 1990, it opens the Savior-Transfiguration Monastery, which operates to this day.
The islands were visited by people in the V century BC, and from the III century BC there were built pagan temples - mazes. Solovetsky labyrinths or Northern - A spiral image, composed ofsmall stones. Sizes varied labyrinths -. 1 to 25 meters, the height of not more than 50 cm on the Solovetsky archipelago found one of the largest clusters of mazes - at least 35 known to date, and many different calculations and stone embankments. Most of the stone labyrinths located on the Big Island Zayatsky. So far, no data set of labyrinths, but their historical and cultural value is undeniable.
On the territory of the Solovetsky Islands can also see:
negotiation stone - A monument devoted to the events of the Crimean War.
To ensure all necessary monasteryIt makes a lot of blanks to store various stores throughout the special monasteries were built. It is now known that the three main monastery was founded on the Big Solovetsky Island - Savvatiy Skit (garden), the monastery on Mount Sekirnaya (berry), Isakovsky skit (fishing and hay). The hermitage on the island of Great Muksalma was a farmyard and the Big Island Zayatsky was founded by St. Andrew's skit - "sea gates" Solovki.
Big Solovetsky dam
The dam is a unique structure that isA large island joins Muksalma and Big Solovetsky. The monastery was forbidden to keep cattle, so it was decided to build a monastery for its maintenance on the neighboring island. The lack of land communication between the islands difficult to move. In the middle of the XIX century it was decided to build a bridge-dam. Build a dam of large boulders and sand, it has a length of 1200 meters.
The Botanical Garden was founded by ArchimandriteMakarios in 1822. The garden is located between two lakes. There is growing more than 500 species of plants, some of them were planted even monks in 1870, and some prisoners of the Solovki prison. Although the territory of the Solovetsky Archipelago and is a protected area, where fishing is allowed, and picking mushrooms and berries.