The most progressive advance in the field of medicine is still considered the discovery of penicillin. This drug, later called an antibiotic, completely turned the world around.
Today, modern pharmacology has hundreds of types of antibiotics that help effectively treat a variety of complex infectious diseases.
The time of penicillin has passed?
Medicine since penicillin has gone farForward, creating a new generation of strong analog medicines. The reason that modern doctors are forced to use powerful antimicrobial agents is that harmful microorganisms have managed to adapt to penicillin. Microbes adapted and began to produce a special enzyme - penicillinase, which is capable of destroying antibiotics.
New generation antibiotics
Most new antibiotics workSelectively, that is, their action is directed against microorganisms of one or two species. Today in medical medicine, antibiotics from the group of fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, imipenems, macrolides, penicillins have found wide application. The strongest antibiotics include broad-spectrum antibiotics, which destroy both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.
To this group belong the most powerfulAntibiotics with a broad spectrum of action, working bactericidal. These drugs are well tolerated by patients, with minimal side effects. Now the group of cephalosporins consists of four generations.
• Preparations of the first generation.
Excellent work against staphylococcal infections of cefadroxil ("Biodroxil", "Durocef"), cefazolin ("Kefzol", "Rizolin"), cephalexin ("Ospexin", "Sporidex").
• Second generation drugs.
Medications are prescribed for the control of intestinal and hemophilic rods, klebsiella. This is cefuroxime ("Zinnat", "Ketocef", "Aksetin", "Ketoceph"), cefaclor ("Taracef", "Werzef").
• Third generation drugs.
Well proven in the treatment of suchDiseases like pyelonephritis, meningitis, pneumonia, infections of the abdominal region, osteomyelitis. These include ceftazidime ("Fotrazim", "Fortum"), ceftriaxone ("Tortsef", "Lendacin"), cefoperazone ("Cefobid", "Medotsef"), cefotaxime ("Cefosin", "Claforan").
• Fourth generation drugs - the strongest of cephalosporins ("Cefepime").
The spectrum of their use is much broader than the previous group, along with a greater list of side effects: dysbacteriosis, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hematotoxicity.
To narrow-use antibiotics areMacrolides, which have proven themselves in the fight against gram-positive microorganisms. The action of macrolides is directed to the growth stagnation of bacterial cells, while they do not inhibit immunity.
The preparations of this group include "Erythromycin", ""Spiramycin", "Oleandomycin", "Clarithromycin", "Azithromycin", "Josamycin", "Roxithromycin". The most powerful of macrolides is considered to be "Josamycin" and "Clarithromycin". These drugs are prescribed for the treatment of stomach ulcers, sinusitis, otitis, respiratory and chlamydial infections.