With the Turkic language the word "pen" can be translated as "black stone".
This tool for drawing and writing has an unusual history of invention.
It is still unknown when all the same there was the first pencil.
Today you can buy in stores and color, and pencils. Simple pencil writes gray tint written will vary depending on the hardness of the graphite.
The people drew earlier?
Interestingly, in ancient times, had artistsuse "silver pencil" stationery thirteenth century were made of silver wire, placed in a box or frame. This prototype of a pencil is not allowed to erase the image, and from the time of the inscription of the gray turns brown.
It is noteworthy that artists today often use silver, Italian, pencil lead, in order to achieve a certain effect. </ Blockquote>
There were in the past and "lead pencils"often they were used to writing portraits. In particular, such a pencil drawing by Albrecht Dürer. Then came the "Italian pencil" black slate, after which began the production of office supplies of raw materials extracted from burnt bones. Powder fastened with vegetable glue, pencil gave saturated line.
Pencils with graphite rod startedmanufactured in the fifteenth century, when the graphite deposits have been found in England. But the use of these raw materials become only after a series of experiments showing that the mass of leaves clear traces on objects. And the first time labeled graphite sheep. However, pieces of graphite dirty hands, so the material sticks out for convenience tied with string, wrapped them in paper or knotted twigs from a tree.
When invented the graphite pencil?
The first written mention of the pencildated 1683 year. In Germany, the production of graphite pencils in a wooden case began in 1719. Graphite is first mixed with glue, gray, however, the rod was not very good quality. That is why the change in formulation and continued on. In 1790 in Vienna, Josef Hardmut invented mixed graphite dust with water and clay, after firing this mixture to produce rods of varying degrees of hardness. The wizard then founded the company Koh-i-Noor, issued by the World famous pencils today.
Few people know that a pencil can draw under water and in space, but the pen - no.</ Blockquote>
Today, the lead pencils are distinguished by hardness,marking of the letters M (soft) and T (solid). Sales can be find and pencils marked with TM (hard-soft) - is the most common office supplies. By the way, in the United States to determine the hardness of the pencil used numerical scale.