From the Turkic language the word "pencil" can be translated as "black stone".
This tool for drawing and writing has an unusual history of invention.
It is still unknown when the first pencil appeared after all.
Today in shops it is possible to get both color, and simple pencils. A simple pencil is written in gray, the shade of the written will vary depending on the hardness of the graphite.
What did people paint earlier?
Curiously, in ancient times, artists had toTo use "silver pencils", office supplies of the thirteenth century were a wire made of silver, placed in a case or frame. This prototype of the pencil did not allow to erase the drawing, but from time to time the inscription from the gray became brown.
It is noteworthy that artists today often use silver, Italian, lead pencils in order to achieve a certain effect.
There were also "lead pencils" in the past,Most often they were used to write portraits. In particular, Albrecht Durer painted such a pencil. Then came the "Italian pencil" of black slate, after which the production of stationery from raw materials extracted from burnt bones began. The powder was fastened with vegetable glue, the pencil gave a saturated line.
Pencils with a graphite rod startedProduce in the fifteenth century, when in England were discovered deposits of graphite. But this raw material was used only after a series of experiments that showed that the mass leaves clear marks on objects. And for the first time graphite was labeled with sheep. However, the pieces of graphite dirty their hands, so the sticks of the material were tied with a thread for convenience, wrapped in paper or clamped with twigs of wood.
When did they invent a graphite pencil?
The first written mention of a pencilDated 1683 year. In Germany, the production of graphite pencils in a wooden case began in 1719. Graphite was initially mixed with glue, gray, though, the rod was not very high quality. That is why recipe changes continued. In 1790 in Vienna, Josef Hardmuth thought up mixing graphite dust with water and clay, after roasting this mixture rods of varying degrees of hardness were obtained. This master subsequently founded the firm Koh-i-Noor, which produces world-famous pencils to this day.
Few people know that a simple pencil can draw underwater and in space, but the ballpoint pen does not.
Today, pencils are distinguished by the hardness of the lead,Marking them with the letters M (soft) and T (solid). On sale it is possible to meet and pencils with marking ТМ (hard-soft) are the most widespread office supplies. By the way, in the United States, a numerical scale is used to determine the hardness of pencils.