Back in 2009, the scientific and educational channel "Discovery" summarized the work of scientists in the XXI century.
A list of the most significant scientific discoveries of this period was published.
Discoveries are made in the fields of medicine, biotechnology, space and climatology.
Climatologists, exploring the ice caps of Antarctica andGreenland, concluded that the ice of the planet is melting much faster than previously thought. Most of the mainland snowfields and glaciers can disappear, and the powerful ice of the Arctic decreases with great speed. With such a rate of melting, in the near future the Arctic Ocean will be completely ice-free in the summer. The consequences of melting are ambiguous. On the one hand, melted glaciers will become a source of water for billions of needy people, on the other - raising the ocean level will lead to the disappearance of some islands and countries. By calculations of some authoritative scientists, by the end of the century the water level of the World Ocean should not rise more than 1 meter.
Full melting of the ice of Greenland, will lead to an increase in the level of the World Ocean by 7 meters.
Mapping of the human genome
Working closely, the scientists of the world spent 10 years deciphering the entire human genome. In 2003, scientists finally revealed the details of the structure of man at the molecular level.
Inside each human cell there are 23 chromosomes. If they are arranged in one row, their length will be 91 cm.
The discovery of water on Mars
In 2008, the Phoenix spacecraftLanded in the area of the North Pole of Mars. Its main task was to take soil samples for analyzes. At one point in the functioning of the vehicle, the onboard cameras noticed white powder in the samples. As soon as pictures of the next days began to be compared, on the last of them the white powder was already smaller. After careful analysis, scientists came to the conclusion that this white powder is water ice.
The scientific and ethical method of obtaining stem cells
In 2007, independently of each other,American and Japanese scientists, from human skin cells were able to grow embryonic stem cells. Scientists have solved two problems at once. On the one hand, the new method does not violate ethical norms, on the other - now from any cells of human DNA it is possible to grow absolutely any organ that, when transplanted, will not be rejected by the body.
Management of the prosthesis by brain signals
In 2009, the scientist Pierpaolo Petruziello becameThe first person in the world who, with the help of the power of thought, was able to control the biomechanical hand. The hand was connected to the nerves of the scientist's stump by wire and electrodes.
Detection of exoplanets
In 2008, astronomers of the Hubble telescope announcedAbout the discovery of exoplanets revolving around distant stars. At a distance of 25 to 150 light years from Earth, there can be planets on which there is life.
The oldest ancestors of mankind
In 2009, Ethiopia found a skeleton of ageAbout 4.4 million years. As scientists suppose it is the ancient ancestor of man, he walked on two legs, but at the same time he climbed trees well. Analyzing the teeth of the skeleton, scientists concluded that the ancestor of man was eating a variety of food.