Allergy is an inadequate immune responseSystems for safe substances. With allergies, the body perceives these substances as dangerous, even when in contact with a small amount of an allergen showing unusual sensitivity.
At present, almost one third of the population suffers from an allergy to one degree or another, according to doctors' estimates.
Treatment of allergies: general principles
First of all, it is necessary to limitContact the patient with the allergen: do not eat foods that cause allergic reactions, follow a diet, create conditions that exclude the ingress of allergens into the body and the impact of additional factors that aggravate the development of the disease.
It is necessary to consult a doctor for appointmentTreatment and diagnosis: in some cases special tests are required to detect allergens. Prescribe anti-allergic (antihistamines) drugs can only a specialist, he also chooses the dosage and the best combination of drugs.
Medicinal treatment of allergy
Antihistamines are most commonAs a method of treating allergies. Usually prescribe drugs of the second or third generation ("Cetrin", "Claritin", "Erius", "Zirtek"), which have fewer side effects, including drowsiness, compared to first-generation drugs (diphenhydramine).
Often, in addition to antihistamines, allergies need to take sorbents to accelerate the removal of allergens from the body.
In severe forms, allergies have proven theirEffectiveness of glucocorticoid preparations. The prejudice of many patients against hormonal tablets, injections and ointments is based on the experience of first-generation drugs with many side effects. Modern hormonal drugs for the treatment of allergies are safer, however, their independent appointment and exceeding the recommended time for taking the drug is strictly prohibited. Corticosteroids can be used either topically, to relieve exacerbation or maintenance treatment, and in forms for systemic exposure - in this case they are taken as a short course to combat severe exacerbation.
The method of specific desensitization
A method such asAllergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT), or a method of specific desensitization (hyposensibilization). In this case, the patient is injected with an allergen with a gradual increase in dose, usually in the form of injections of purified allergens. After a certain time the tolerance of the organism to an allergen is formed, and inadequate reactions no longer arise.
Allergen-specific immunotherapy is performedUnder the supervision of a doctor, after the introduction of an allergen, it is necessary to stay under observation in order to avoid anaphylactic shock - the most formidable manifestation of allergy.
Such treatment is recommended in cases whenContact with the allergen can not be prevented, and the effect of drug therapy is insufficient. The method is designed for a long time - the average course of treatment lasts 3 years, but after a few months the need for hormonal and antihistamines is reduced, the quality of life of the patient improves.
When allergies are shown physiotherapy (stayIn the baro-and speleo- chamber), plasmapheresis (hardware purification of blood plasma), climatotherapy and sanatorium treatment are recommended. Short-term stay at sea sometimes significantly reduces the symptoms of allergies, but we must remember that excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays and a sharp change of climate can lead to deterioration.
The effectiveness of methods of alternative medicine forThe treatment of allergy does not yet have enough evidence, but with prolonged absence of proper effect in the usual medical treatment, some patients turn to homeopathy, acupuncture or phytotherapy.
Treatment of allergies in different types of immune response
Depending on the type of reaction of the organismAn additional treatment is prescribed to relieve specific symptoms. So, for allergic dermatitis, accompanied by the appearance of a rash, irritation, dry skin, moisturizing, wound healing or drying ointments and creams are used.
Allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, in addition to antihistamines, are also treated with decongestants and anti-inflammatory drugs. In bronchial asthma, bronchodilators are prescribed.
People with an allergy to medicinalFunds, in case of emergency situations, doctors recommend wearing a special bracelet indicating all the preparations for which an allergic reaction was recorded at least once.
Practically for all types of allergy recommendedTo exclude from the diet or limit products most often causing allergic reactions (citrus, cocoa and chocolate, nuts, brightly colored fruits and vegetables). It is recommended to introduce new and unfamiliar products into the diet one at a time and in small quantities.
Limit contact with petsAnd birds and create living conditions, in which contacts with household allergens would be minimized. This requires frequent wet cleanings, daily airing of premises, it is not recommended to keep carpets, bedding from natural materials, houseplants in the premises.