The porous ceramic blocks are manufacturedFrom a mixture of clay, water and wood sawdust, which in subsequent firing at high temperatures burn out, forming a porous structure. This building material is characterized by high thermal insulation and sound-absorbing properties.
The porous blocks are used both for the erection of multi-storey buildings and for individual construction.
Features of the masonry of porous ceramic blocks
This environmentally friendly large-format wallThe material having a vertical groove-groove connection allows to significantly increase the speed of construction, to shorten its terms and to reduce the cost. Its use is advisable in the construction of buildings and structures of any complexity and allows the most bold architectural solutions.
For the construction of masonry from ceramic blocks it is necessaryBuy thermal insulation masonry mortars, the rates for which are slightly higher than the traditional cement-sand or lime-cement, which in this case is not recommended. This is due to too great a difference in thermal properties, because of which the seams made with the use of conventional solutions will become conductors of the cold from the outside and will eliminate the entire heat-insulation effect from the use of porous ceramic blocks. A mortar for ceramic blocks should be prepared strictly following the instructions. From 20 kg of a special dry mixture, about 30 liters of solution are obtained, its consistency should not be too liquid, so that it does not flow into the vertical openings of the blocks.
Stitches used for the laying of porous ceramic blocks
Just like for brickwork, in this caseThe bedstitch is used. Carrying out it, you need to observe a balance - it should not be too thick, so that the strength of the masonry does not decrease, and, at the same time, too thin to allow the permissible deviations in the dimensions of the blocks to be leveled. Usually, a seam thickness of 12 mm is sufficient, and the solution should be applied evenly. For load-bearing walls and walls experiencing statistical loads, the pastel seam should be made more solid, and for partitions not under tension, it can be made intermittent.
Depending on the geographical area, blocks of different thicknesses can be used to erect external walls, which provides significant savings for southerners.
A vertical construction joint is used forBrick masonry of bearing walls, both external and internal, but in this case the work execution time and the solution consumption are significantly increased. With the use of ceramic blocks, the use of the groove-groove banding practically excludes its use, which shortens the construction period. Masonry from the blocks does not require mortar to make vertical seams, and the outer wall, which does not allow heat, is built in one row. Thermal insulation is ensured by the fact that in the horizontal direction the blocks are placed close to each other, providing a monolithic integrity of the building structure. In addition, the absence of a solution allows the walls to dry much faster and almost immediately to obtain high strength and heat-resistant properties.
Technological subtleties of the masonry of porous ceramic blocks
An important stage is the laying of the first row, withWhich must provide a reliable waterproofing between the wall and the wall of the basement. Before starting work on the socle wall, a waterproof mortar must be applied over which a waterproofing material should be placed, its width should be 2-3 cm larger than the width of the wall being built. On the waterproofing material is applied a thick continuous pastel seam, which, from the highest point, it is necessary to level with the help of a level. To ensure that the blocks do not immerse themselves in the solution under their own weight, a thin layer of cement is placed on top of the seam.
Works on the laying of walls from ceramic blocks should be conducted in dry weather at a temperature above 5oC. In case of rain, the finished masonry must be closed.
The first blocks must be laid in the corners andConnect them with a special device - cord-mooring along the outer wall. The remaining blocks are laid out on it, they are simply inserted one into the other, preventing the horizontal displacement. To the required size, the blocks are sawed using a desktop circular or chain manual electric saw. After the first row is laid out, he needs time to dry - not less than 12 hours.
The technology of laying walls is quite simple, but here tooHave their own subtleties. Before starting the laying of subsequent rows, the surface of the blocks of the lower row should be moistened with water. The mortar for the horizontal pastel seam is erected on the whole surface of the blocks when the outer walls are being erected, and it should be collected from the outer surface of the wall using a spatula. It is necessary to check that the vertical seams between adjacent rows are of the same size, and also use a level to control the horizontal and vertical position of the stacked blocks. In case of deviations, the blocks can be pinched with a rubber mallet.
Particular attention is paid to the lining of masonry and walls. It is she who ensures the integrity of the constructed structure. The shift between individual blocks in adjacent rows should be at least 0.4 of their height. The dressing of the outer walls with the internal ones is done with the help of steel anchors with perforation, they are laid in the pastel seams of each odd number. Since the masonry from the porous blocks has a lining, the lining of the masonry and the cladding is necessary. As a rule, the facade brick of the Russian production and ceramic blocks have a uniform coefficient of multiplicity, which greatly simplifies the dressing.