In the individual construction of wooden houses, two methods are usually used. At the first construction is erected in one stage.
This category includes, for example, frame houses.
In the second case, the house is built in two steps: first a box is constructed, for example, from a bar, and when it is built, a finishing finish is made.
The construction of houses from the timber has its technological subtleties.
Advantages of houses from a bar
Frame structures are considered to be simpler andConvenient from the point of view of the technology of their erection. And still houses from a bar use in the market of individual housing construction more popularity. What is the secret of the attractiveness of houses from the timber for the end user?
The first reason for this choice is economic. In the frame house you can enter immediately after the completion of construction, but most often you have to pay for it all the amount at a time. But the house of a bar dried in natural conditions is built in several stages, respectively, and payment for the labor of the builders, as a rule, is paid in installments, after the completion of the next stage of erection of the house.
Another reason is related to the fact that the frameThe designs do not seem reliable and solid to the consumer. Many customers of individual houses are sure that the frame building is easy to destroy. It is believed that a reliable house should be massive. Indeed, in terms of their performance characteristics, houses made of timber are not inferior to structures made of thick logs.
House of timber: choice of foundation
The initial cycle of construction of the structure of the timberInvolves the construction of a foundation. Houses from a beam, as a rule, put on tape, columnar or plate foundations. If you want to reduce the cost of erecting the house to a minimum, choose the columnar type of the base. More expensive and reliable way is to install a house on stilts, rigidly connected by a ribbon of reinforced concrete - grillage.
Pile foundations have proved themselves in loose soils, for example, having peat inclusions.
Plate foundation has its basisReinforced concrete slab. The house rests on it with all walls. It is best to use such a foundation in places where groundwater is high. It should be noted that the slab foundation is more expensive than the columnar or pile foundation, because it requires a large amount of concrete and reinforcement to lay it.
Belt foundation is relatively cheap and quiteReliable. It is a horizontal frame in the form of a tape having the same cross-sectional shape. The tape is located under all the bearing walls of the house, which allows you to evenly distribute the load and eliminate possible deformations of the structure. This type of foundation is widely used in the construction of houses from a bar, considered universal.
How to choose the right beam
On sale you can meet a bar of naturalHumidity of the most different sizes. Today, more often use a beam with a cross-section of 100x150 mm, and for overlap - with a section of 150x200 mm. It is best to choose a bar made from a selective roundwood. It will cost more, but such costs pay off with the quality of such material and its durability.
The once popular bar with a section of 100x100 mmNow apply less and less. The walls of such a material are less resistant to low temperatures, so they need additional insulation. The cost of such a bar is almost the same as that of blanks with a larger cross-section, but the laboriousness of erecting a house is increased, because the number of crowns to be laid increases by about one and a half times. In proportion to this, the number of stitches that need to be worn increases.
It should also be aware that the small cross-section of the timber limits the length of the wall of the house, which can be built without additional ribs.
Assembling the walls of a house from a bar
The construction of a structure from a bar is usually carried outDirectly at the site of its installation. Widely used two ways to connect the corners: "in obo" and "in the paw." The choice is determined by the features of the architecture of the building and the passions of the future owner of the house. If you plan to insulate and sheathe the house later, then you should choose to cut the "paw".
Begin to assemble the walls from the installation to the baseThe first crown that performs the strapping function. After attaching the corners to the lower crown, put the sealant, and on it already set the bar of the next crown. Consistently laying out the crown behind the crown, raise the wall in accordance with the planned height of the first floor. Then, the ceilings are mounted, and if necessary, an attic or a second floor is erected on top of them.
The final stage of construction of a house made of lumber
When the walls of the log are installed, you can move on toLaying floors. Usually they are made double, using thus a heater which simultaneously carries out the function of soundproofing. Lags, as a rule, are made from a bar of the same cross-section as the walls of a house. Sometimes, when creating a so-called rough floor to the logs at the bottom, edged boards are attached. The floor is then lined on the floorboard.
It is time to arrange the roof of the house. Very often houses of a country type timber have an attic, which requires a more insulated roof. Builders use such cunning: at the first stage of construction a temporary roof is built from the roofing material, and before the completion of construction they change it to a permanent one.
After installing the roof and covering it with roofingThe material in the house is installed windows and doors. There are two possible options. You can install these elements at once, without waiting for the drying of the frame. And you can wait until the last stage of erection of the house is completed. This way is preferable, because the house will settle and settle gradually, and shrinkage will not lead to a significant deformation of the entire structure.
And, finally, after the house shrinks, andBar will dry, produce insulation of walls, interior and exterior decoration of the building. Very often the finished house is bricked, which allows to combine the useful properties of the wooden structure with the performance characteristics of a more durable material. The walls, finished with a heater, are usually subsequently lined with decorative materials, which also perform an important aesthetic function.