There is no clear definition of an open-air museum does not exist.
In this modern museological literatureterm adopted to determine the preservation of folk architecture monuments, usually wooden, and the demonstration of a certain type of culture and ethnographic collections.
The first open-air museum was established inSweden in 1891. This was the famous Skansen, which remains the authoritative center of this trend of museums today. The idea was picked up Norway and Denmark, and from the moment this type of museum exposition has spread around the world. An Association of open-air museums, performing the methodical and educational functions.
In Russia, the first such exhibition center opened in 1927 in a Moscow park Kolomenskoye - the former country estate of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.
In Russia, open-air museums is enougha lot of. If you follow the above-proposed classification, then the group of museums that preserve the monuments of folk architecture can be attributed, for example, Kizhi in Karelia included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage, Vitoslavitsy near Novgorod and the Yuriev Monastery of the XII century, museum of wooden architecture in Suzdal, Irkutsk Taltsy and others. All of these museums preserve a small area, wooden houses and farm buildings. To do this, they are transported to a place that becomes an open-air museum. At the same time they work and how ethnographic, since there is presented the life of the indigenous population of the area of that era, which date from the construction. The museum has occupied the locals, reproducing everyday culture of a certain historical period.
A special place among the museums under the open skyIt takes a very famous wide Russian audience Tomsk Pisanitsa in the Kemerovo region. It retained the unique prehistoric cave paintings, and at the same time - this is an ethnographic open-air museum where you can see the wooden structures of different eras indigenous Siberian people Shor.
Palace and park ensemble (Peterhof, Tsaritsynoetc.), the nobility and the writers of the estate (for example, Yasnaya Polyana, Mikhailovskoye and Trigorskoye, Spassky Lutovinovo) are also open-air museums.
This same group of museum complexes can beinclude preserved archaeological excavations presented for public viewing. They can be seen in the Russian Crimea (Hersonissos, Panticapaeum Kerch), the Tula Kremlin, Veliky Novgorod, and others.
A special variety of the best Russian museums of this type represent a field of military glory. They were in Russia a lot, but as the three museums are open: Kulikovo, Borodino and Prokhorovka.
Open-air museums - a promising trend in the museum business, actively developing all over the world.