There is no clear definition of the museum under the open sky.
In modern museological literature thisThe term is customary to determine the preservation of monuments of folk architecture, usually wooden, and the demonstration of some type of culture and ethnographic collections.
History of occurrence
The first open-air museum was organized inSweden in 1891. It was the famous Skansen, which remains the authoritative center of this area of the museum business to this day. The idea was picked up by Norway and Denmark, and from that moment this kind of museum exposition began to spread around the world. There was an Association of Open-Air Museums, performing methodological and educational functions.
In Russia, the first such exhibition complex was opened in 1927 in the Moscow park Kolomenskoye - the former country estate of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.
In Russia, open-air museumsa lot of. If we follow the classification proposed above, then, for example, Kizhi in Karelia, included in the list of sites of cultural heritage of UNESCO, Vitosławice near Novgorod and St. George's monastery of the 12th century, the Museum of Wooden Architecture in Suzdal, Irkutsk Taltsy, etc. All these museums in a small territory preserve wooden houses and outbuildings. For this they are transferred to one place, which becomes a museum in the open air. At the same time, they also work as ethnographic, because they represent the life of the indigenous population of the locality of the era in which the buildings are dated. The museum employs local residents who reproduce the everyday culture of a certain historical period.
A special place among the museums under the open skyOccupies not so well-known to the wide Russian audience Tomskaya Pisanitsa in the Kemerovo region. There are preserved unique primitive rock paintings and at the same time it is an ethnographic open-air museum in which it is possible to see wooden structures of different eras of the indigenous Siberian people of the Shorians.
Palace and park ensembles (Petrodvorets, TsaritsynoEtc.), aristocratic and literary manors (for example, Yasnaya Polyana, Trigorskoye and Mikhailovskoye, Spasskoye Lutovinovo) are also open-air museums.
To the same group of museum complexes, you canInclude the conserved archaeological excavations presented for public viewing. They can be seen in the Russian Crimea (Chersonese, Panticapaeum in Kerch), the Tula Kremlin, Novgorod the Great, etc.
A special kind of the best Russian museums of this type are fields of military glory. There are many of them in Russia, but three are open to museums: Kulikovo, Borodino and Prokhorovskoye.
Museums in the open air - this is a promising direction in the museum business, actively developing around the world.