Foundation - the foundation of any house.
It must withstand the weight of the structure, located in the building of people, objects.
To the house is not "twisted" over time, the foundation itself has not gone cracks, it is necessary to fill correctly.
Select the type of filler foundation
If you can not hire a specialist,which would be held geological surveys, you will have to act. Here are the 3 most important factors that you need to know before you pour the foundation:
1; bedding Groundwater aqueous
2.; heaving grunta-
3; The severity of the structure.
For example, the water table is shallow, housenot heavy - 1- storey, not from silicate blocks, brick and timber, frame-panel. Then we can make melkozaglublenny foundation. He is at a depth of 60 cm.
In this type of foundation is less materials, time and effort to dig a trench than buried.
The latter, depending on the groundwater abundance and the weight of the structure, the depth may be up to 240 cm.
Heaving soil layers - clay loam - moving. If this layer is small, it is appropriate melkozaglublenny foundation.
If they are at a great depth, it is necessary to fill the recessed foundation. Usually in such cases, dig a trench to a stable ground layers - sand, rocks, etc.
Technology for creating a jellied foundation
It consists of:
- Digging transhei-
- Opalubki- device
- The creation of sand and crushed stone podushki-
- Installation armatury-
- pouring concrete.
Once you have decided on the type of fillerfoundation, you can begin to work. Mark the portion of the desired size, such what will be the house. Beat in the four corners of the pegs, tighten the rope around the perimeter and diagonal. Align the diagonal.
Now, dig a trench for the foundation, of a width of 30-50 cm.
In the lower part of the foundation pours coarse sand layer of 10-25 cm, carefully poured water and compacted. Next comes a layer of 10-15 cm of gravel.
It can be mixed sadness, crushed stone pillow, but do not forget it is well compacted.
It's time to reinforcement. It needs to be properly set. It consists of an iron bar, interconnected by means of a knitting dragged. Rods placed horizontally and vertically at a distance apart of approximately 30 cm.
Particular attention should be paid to the corner of the fixture.
Then it is necessary to construct shuttering - the form in whichthen concrete will be poured. Basically it is a wooden - from wide boards. They are placed horizontally across the length and width of the trench, and the top. If the foundation is high, the boards of formwork needed external backups of small dostochek.
If possible, you can order the car to volume of concrete and pour them a foundation. If not, the solution is prepared independently. The correct solution is composed of:
- 5 parts graviya-
- 3 parts peska-
- 1 part tsementa-
- 10 parts water.
Pour the foundation of better cement brand M400. Cement is first mixed with the sand, poured into water, mixed thoroughly, and added by the gravel is poured in a minimum amount of time. Then, using a ram vibrator and level building trowel.
Once the foundation is poured all hissurface periodically moisten with water to avoid cracks and covered with burlap. Concrete well must harden for 30-45 days, and thereafter only possible further construction work.