Ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 is the average salt of nitric acid. It is a white crystalline substance.
It is widely used in industry and miningAs a mixture of ammonium nitrate with various types of flammable and explosive substances. Most of the ammonium nitrate is used as a good nitrogen fertilizer or as one of the products of obtaining other fertilizers.
There are more than three ways of obtaining salt.
One of them is known as the Odda method, or the nitrophosphate method.
You will need
- Nitric acid, water, sodium phosphate (apatite), test tubes
Take apatite. Natural calcium phosphate is a mineral of the phosphate class, pale green, blue, yellow-green or pink with glass shine. Place a small amount of the substance in a test tube.
Then gently dissolve the calcium phosphate. To do this, add water and nitric acid. During the reaction, calcium nitrate, phosphoric acid and water are formed. Ca3 (PO4) 2 + 6HNO3 + 12HOH> 2H3PO4 + 3Ca (NO3) 2 + 12HOH
Cool the resulting solution to 0 ° C. In this case, the resulting calcium nitrate crystallizes to form a complex compound, Ca (NO3) 2? 4HOH-calcium nitrate tetrahydrate.
Separate the compound from phosphoric acid. This substance is white, light gray, light beige.
On the obtained crystalline substance and notRemove the phosphoric acid with ammonia. The result is a white precipitate, calcium hydrogenphosphate, and the desired ammonium nitrate. Ca (NO3) 2 + 4H3PO4 + 8NH3> CaHPO4v + 2NH4NO3 + 3 (NH4) 2HPO4