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How to make a solar panel

Place the battery in a lit area

A person who is outside of the city, the need for additional sources of electricity occurs frequently. One of the options - solar battery.

Of course, in summer conditions, you are unlikely to make a powerful battery, capable of providing electricity to the entire site.

But the power will be enough to charge a mobile phone or even connect a small fan.

The battery of the old calculators

There are calculators model solar-powered. Typically, such pack has three photocells. Sometimes they can be more. Elements need to remove such a way to keep the leads or soldered to the element fixed on it by means of clips. This will greatly facilitate the installation. very useful as a sensitive measuring device for the manufacture of home-made energy source - such as a multimeter. Single element gives the following amounts of electricity to the 1st quarter. see the area:

- Current up to 24 mA-
- Voltage of 0.5 V.

Under load, the voltage will turn half of thatfor practical purposes, totally inadequate. If you need higher voltage or higher current, it is necessary to combine several of these elements together. This requires a common panel of a dielectric (eg, PCB). Serial Connection (with the obligatory polarity) will make it possible to increase the output voltage and internal resistance of solar cells is quite large. To reduce it (and increase battery output power) and useful to apply the parallel connection of the individual elements. In parallel, can be connected as a chain of series-connected battery cells, and the individual elements together.

In any case it is necessary to monitor compliancepolarity. If you managed to keep the wires attached to individual plates, solder elements is quite easy, but it should be done with the use of a heat sink. But the extraction of solar cells to maintain the wire is not always possible. In this case, you can use the spring clips and even small springs from ballpoint pens. Exactly the same principle can be collected from the solar battery selenium plates from old photographic exposure meters.

Soldering the element itself can not because it will home are likely to breakdown.

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Old radio or unwanted computer mouse

In most cases at hand is not readyphotocells. In this case, you can use the available-old radio parts. For example, the connecting point 20 of diodes in series in a glass body (e.g., D9, D2), one can obtain voltage 1.2V. Of course, the polarities necessary in this case. If the body diode is covered with paint, it is necessary to wash or scrape off. Diodes any suitable as silicon and germanium. Additional parallel connection of diodes and diode chains in the same way as in the first case, help to reduce the internal resistance of the battery. With the same purpose can be used by the photodiodes of the failed computer mice. Possible use of LEDs, which can also function as solar cells.

The battery of the transistors

Instead, the diodes can be used transistorsmetal housings. Here, access to the world you want to remove the metal case or upper part. Use can be the collector - base and emitter - base. In this case, suitable as the silicon and germanium transistors, transistors with the emitter or collector ragged, but it is desirable that they be of the same type. Rules are the same compounds that are indicated in the first two methods. It is useful to use more reflective panels, casts light on the solar cell.

The power transistor, the more current can be removed from the battery.

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Some subtleties

Transistors, and in general any photocells,it is desirable to protect against mechanical damage and dust. For this assembled battery is best close on. Suitable transparent film or thin quartz glass. You can apply a thin and orgesteklo. Normal window glass, say, or triplex, are not suitable, as delay ultraviolet rays.

It is important to ensure that the battery statusrelative to the sun, because it affects the efficiency of its work. The efficiency of solar cells made at home rather low and does not exceed 10%. Get the energy you can not in a very sunny day, but the battery must not be in a strongly shaded place. Voltage is enough to recharge batteries anywhere in the country or in the campaign. By the way, this way you can even light up a dark basement, if positioned outside the battery, but inside - LED.

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