Porcelain began to carry to Europe from China in the XIV century, and it valued its weight in gold, and sometimes much higher. Even fragments of cups while worn as expensive jewelry.
European alchemists have been searching for the secret of the production of "white gold", but the first European porcelain manufactory appeared only in 1708 in Saxony, in the town of Meissen.
How it was founded the Imperial Porcelain Factory
Porcelain production could notinterest of Peter I, who sought to keep up with the West and wanted to organize a porcelain manufactory in Russia. He even sent to Saxony people from "espionage assignments." But "take swoop" manufacturing secrets Meissen masters could not - they were guarded tightly. And Russian porcelain began to be made only under Elizabeth.
February 1, 1744 Chamberlain of the EmpressElizabeth Baron Nicholas Korf, signed a contract with a certain Christopher Hunger, which undertook "to establish in St. Petersburg manufactory for making Dutch dishes." And six months later near St. Petersburg plant for the production of portselina (so-called porcelain in Europe at the time) was founded. But to establish production Hunger is not able to, neither the knowledge nor the abilities he has in actual fact was not.
The fact saved the so-called "student" Gunter -Dmitry Vinogradov. Prior to textiles Vinogradov eight years he studied in Europe, chemistry, metallurgy and mining - and it was he in 1746 succeeded in obtaining the first successful examples of Russian porcelain, and then work out the technology to produce and deliver it to the stream. In 1765 the manufactory was baptized the Imperial Porcelain Factory. After that, during the half century plant, the first day of specializing in the production of artistic porcelain of the highest quality, worked mainly on "government order". Produced here sets, vases, painted dishes can not be bought - only to receive a gift from the Emperor.
Pages of History: propaganda porcelain and teeth for the Soviet power
In post-revolutionary 1918, nationalizedand renamed the "State Porcelain Factory", the company moved to the jurisdiction of the People's Commissariat, and in front of him and ideological was given the task: to develop products, "revolutionary in content, perfect in form, perfect technical execution." The result was the famous propaganda porcelain, which became the "in combination" is also a new stage of development of Russian avant-garde.
Under the leadership of Sergei Chekhonin artist in the creation of propaganda porcelain involved a whole constellation of artists, among whom were and Petrov-Vodkin, and Kustodiev, Malevich and Kandinsky.</ Blockquote>
In 1924, when the country was wondering aboutthe restoration of the national economy, the company was transferred under the control of "Farfortresta" - and the main forces were sent to the production of technical porcelain. The plant, which is the name of the University was awarded in 1925, producing more than 300 kinds of products: dental prostheses, artificial eyes, insulators, boilers, laboratory glassware and so on.
Despite this, the company had"Yard supplier": at the reception desks of the Kremlin served dishes, made on request masters of the Lomonosov Porcelain Factory. And in the 30 years the first art laboratory in the country was opened at the plant (s supervised student of Malevich, the artist-supremacist Nikolai Suetin), create style "Soviet porcelain." And in the "thaw" in 1953 dentures have been forgotten: the plant began to meet "the needs of the Soviet people" in bringing culture into everyday life, focusing on the development of new technologies and production of high complexity products. And in 1965, there began to produce the famous bone china.
After the collapse of the USSR Lomonosov Porcelain FactoryIt was privatized and some time on the brink of closure, but then gradually "came to his senses." In 2005, the company returned its historical name and became "Imperial" again took the clear guidance on the issue of "luxury" products, products for individual orders and art porcelain.
"Brand names" Imperial Porcelain Factory
Bone china is considered to be "royal"- Extremely thin-walled, ringing, translucent. It began to produce in England in the middle of the XVIII century, adding to the weight of bone ash porcelain - contained therein calcium phosphate and attached dishes such unprecedented whiteness. Petersburg Imperial Porcelain Factory - the only enterprise in Russia, which produces a porcelain. At first it was only tea and coffee cups and saucers, dinner sets are available since 2002.
Composition of raw materials for bone china technologistsplant were selected by trial and error. The result stopped on the tibia cattle. At first bone china was made from the waste button-production.</ Blockquote>
Another "insignia" IPE - Artsculpture made of porcelain, the production of which is carried out manually. On average, then, to cast a statue, at the masters takes 2-3 days. Porcelain "dolls" - figures of people and animals - is made from the middle of the XVIII century. One of the most famous pre-revolutionary series of sculptures - a "Peoples of Russia" (about a hundred figures, representing in the national costumes of men and women) from the Soviet sculptures most famous was "Ballet" series. Now in the shop art sculptures made LPF and "replica" (repetitions) of historical figurines, and new models. Among recent works particularly noticeable was a series of sculptures by Mikhail Shemyakin, depicting the heroes of "The Nutcracker."
Painting porcelain - that's whatIt allows you to turn "a good thing" in a unique thing. On the Imperial Porcelain Factory shop two paintings: manual and mechanized. In the workshop, hand painted works of about 20 artists create a unique exhibition Porcelain and products for special order. In a decoration vase or dish may take about a month, and the cost of such products is extremely high.
Work in the shop more mechanized paintingmonotonous, but here are patterns that will learn everywhere. Among them are "calling card" IPE - the famous "Cobalt net" - the pattern for the creation of which factory artist Anna Jackiewicz was awarded a gold medal of the World Exhibition in Brussels in 1958. Since cookware decorated this pattern is produced at an industrial scale. There even developed a special form for such dishes: on the sides of it still in the casting "are drawn" thin grooves - circuit, which must be manually "circle" cobalt lines. Cobalt net may be applied to the product and by means of decal - a thin film resembling a decal on which the pattern is printed cobalt. When firing porcelain film burn, and pattern imprinted in the surface of the product. Golden stars in the blue field of intersection of lines are applied to the pattern, either manually or with the help of a miniature of the die.