Hyperplasia of the placenta is its pathologicalthickening. This pathology of pregnancy occurs in women with severe forms of anemia, people with diabetes mellitus. Infectious diseases, Rh-conflict and late gestosis also can lead to placental hyperplasia.
The placenta is a temporary organ andProvides the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. It exchanges between the blood of the mother and the child. The thickness of the placenta until the 37th week of pregnancy corresponds to the period in weeks. So, at 20 weeks its thickness is 20 mm, and at 25 - 25 mm. At 37 weeks, its growth stops, and the thickness reaches the maximum values of 33, 75 mm. By the time of birth, the placenta may become thinner, which is the norm.
The main causes of placental hyperplasia
Infectious diseases of genital organs, suchAs chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, gonorrhea, STDs, especially syphilis, and infectious diseases of other organs most often cause placenta hyperplasia. In an unhealthy condition, the body can not control the correctness of the formation of the placenta - the capillaries in it are located chaotically, part of the tissue is sclerosed, in response to this, new capillaries appear. As a result, blood circulation slows down. In patients with diabetes, the synthesis of hormones is broken, in particular insulin, which is responsible not only for carbohydrate metabolism, but also performs many other important tasks: placental enzymes are suppressed, in response to this, the available capillaries expand, which causes hyperplasia.
The diagnosis of placental hyperplasia is usuallyTime of the second ultrasound in 18-23 weeks of pregnancy. The doctor sees a thickening of the placenta and an expansion of the intervillar space. The latter occurs compensatory to ensure normal nutrition of the fetus. If the fetus does not lag behind in development, the midwife will prescribe a treatment that will improve blood circulation in the placenta and the baby is born completely healthy. A woman must be observed with an obstetrician and make diagnostic ultrasound 2-3 times a month or weekly. This allows you to monitor the situation.
What is dangerous for placenta hyperplasia
Most often with hyperplasia of the placenta, the childLacks oxygen and nutrients. With moderate hyperplasia, natural childbirth is possible, with a pronounced child too weak to be born on their own. Such children are born with low weight, hypotrophy, manifestations of hypoxia. Modern medicine is able to provide them with adequate care, but the risks of some complications persist for about a year.
Almost all pregnant women with hyperplasiaPlacenta is observed fetoplacental insufficiency (FPN). This condition can not be cured, but can be compensated for by taking special medications that improve blood circulation in the placenta. The intrauterine growth retardation (FHR) of the fetus is a consequence of fetoplacental insufficiency and occurs only with a pronounced FPN. The degree of ZVR is also different. With timely treatment, children are born with a lack of body weight, but within a year they "catch up" with their peers in development.
Scarring or polyhydramnies of different degreesDiagnose more than half of women with placental hyperplasia. Both conditions can be unsafe for the fetus. With pronounced aridity, the bones of the skeleton are bent, the fusion of parts of the body is observed. Polyhydramnios in this regard are less dangerous, but can provoke other complications of pregnancy, for example water leakage or premature birth.
Intrauterine fetal death due toHyperplasia of the placenta is extremely rare, mainly in women who have refused treatment. Danger is not the hyperplasia itself, but the complications that entail the thickening of the placenta. Timely treatment begun allows you to fully or partially compensate for the lack of nutrients. Children are born healthy, if there were no other reasons that could cause the pathology of the fetus.