The unique architectural ensemble of the Moscow Kremlin will learn all over the world because of its status as the highest and original appearance.
Massive walls with red forked teeth and a variety of towers, high and low, slender and stocky, but in its own way beautiful, the face of the Kremlin made so memorable.
Moscow was not built in a day
In the old city called the Kremlin, protectedramparts and towers equipped with loopholes. This name comes from the word "kremlevnik" - coniferous forest with sturdy, large trees, fit for construction. From such trees and erected the first wooden Kremlin. It was a wooden Kremlin in Moscow, but in 1365 burnt to the ground, and it was decided to continue to build defenses only of stone.
Two years later, in place of the ashes rose the Kremlinwhite stone, why Moscow became known as the white stone. However, he also could not stand the test of time and war. In the late XV - beginning of XVI century in the same place between the Moscow River and Neglinnaya river rose a third Kremlin - from a red brick.
Kremlin towers - how many of them and what they
Conceived and embodied in stone as a fortress,The Moscow Kremlin was thoroughly protected by high towers, which could lead a defensive fire. A total of 20 towers of the Kremlin, built at different times, but in the same style.
All the towers are made in the architectural style of Italian classicism, except Nikolskaya towers. It was rebuilt in the XIX century in the Gothic style.
Initially, all the towers had military significance and stern appearance, and beautiful superstructure and the tents were made when the enemy ceased to disturb the Russian capital.
In the corners of a huge triangular fortressThey are large round towers - Beklemishevskaya, Vodovzvodnaya and Corner Arsenal. The power of these towers had to withstand the onslaught of the enemy, and the round shape makes it possible to fire round. Beklemishevskaya tower first took the brunt of the invasion, as there was at the intersection of the Moscow River with a moat. At the base of the tower has been arranged hearing cache to prevent possible undermining. In Vodovzvodnaya tower it was established Russia's first water-pressure device for supplying water from the Moskva River in Moscow Kremlin. Arsenal Tower was one of the seven towers built by the architect Pietro Antonio Solari, and the most powerful of the ancient Kremlin ensemble.
The rest of the square tower of the Kremlin. Towers with travel gates located where the city came important roads. These towers - Spasskaya, Nikolskaya, Trinity, Borovitskaya, Taynitskaya, Constantine and Helen from the outside protected by archers. The remaining towers were adapted for defense.
The towers are fairly evenly distributed acrossstrong perimeter wall, although very different in height. The biggest Troitskaya Tower - 80 meters in height. Nearby, on the other side of the Troitsky Bridge, is the lowest Kutafiya Tower - 13.5 meters.
Taynitskaya was built the first of the modern towers of the Kremlin in 1484. His name was required to cache the well-hidden in the base of the tower to the garrison in case of siege.
The second height, but has a first value and bySpassky Tower remains. She is also the author of Pietro Solari, who opened the building of this tower the east line of the Kremlin's fortifications. Its gate was the main entrance to the capital of the Russian state - through which pass necessarily relied on foot and bareheaded. Long since the tower was adorned with a clock, but the main clock of the country, The Kremlin chimes, established in 1852. Their mechanism occupies three of the ten floors of the Spasskaya Tower.
Kremlin stars of ruby glass decoratedfive tallest towers - Borovitskaya, Trinity, Spasskaya, Nikolskaya and Vodovzvodnaya. Previously, these towers except Vodovzvodnaya, adorned with imperial double-headed eagle, but in 1930 the Bolsheviks came to power, decided to remove the legacy of the old regime. It was such a scarlet five-pointed stars of the Kremlin towers became famous all over the world.