The unique architectural ensemble of the Moscow Kremlin is recognized all over the world due to its highest status and original appearance.
Massive red walls with bifurcated battlements and various towers, tall and low, slender and stocky, but all in their own beautiful, made the Kremlin look so memorable.
Moscow was not built in a day
In the old days the Kremlin was called the city, protectedFortress wall and towers with equipped loopholes. This name comes from the word "Kremlevnik" - a coniferous forest with strong, large trees, suitable for construction. Of these trees, and built the first wooden kremlin. There was a wooden Kremlin in Moscow, but in 1365 it burnt to the ground, and henceforth it was decided to build protective structures only of stone.
Two years later, in the place of the ashes, a KremlinWhite stone, why Moscow was called white stone. However, he too could not stand the test of time and war. At the end of the XV - the beginning of the XVI century on the same place between the Moscow River and the river Neglinnoy grew the third Kremlin - from red brick.
The Kremlin towers - how many of them and what they are
Conceived and embodied in stone as a fortress,The Moscow Kremlin was thoroughly protected by high towers, from which it was possible to conduct a defensive fire. In total, the Kremlin has 20 towers built at different times, but in the same style.
All the towers are made in the architectural style of Italian classicism, except for the Nikolskaya Tower. It was rebuilt in the 19th century in the Gothic style.
Initially, all the towers were of military importance and austere appearance, and beautiful superstructures and tents were made when the enemies ceased to disturb the Russian capital.
In the corners of the huge triangle of the fortressThere are large round towers - Beklemishevskaya, Vodovzvodnaya and Angular Arsenal. The power of these towers was to withstand the onslaught of the enemy, and the round form allowed to fire round. Beklemishevskaya Tower was the first to take a hit during the invasion, as it was at the junction of the Moskva River with a moat. At the base of the tower, an auditory cache was arranged to prevent possible undermining. In the Vodovzvodnaya Tower, the first in Russia water-supply device was installed to supply water from the Moscow River to the Kremlin. The Arsenal Tower was one of seven towers, built by the architect Pietro Antonio Solari, and the most powerful of the ensemble of the ancient Kremlin.
The rest of the Kremlin towers are square. Towers with travel gates were located where important roads approached the city. These towers - Spassky, Nikolskaya, Troitskaya, Borovitskaya, Tainitskaya, Konstantin-Yeleninskaya, were protected from the outside by archers. The remaining towers were adapted for defense.
The towers are fairly evenly distributed overPerimeter of powerful walls, although very different in height. The largest Trinity Tower is 80 meters high. Nearby, on the other side of the Trinity Bridge, stands the lowest tower of Kutafia - only 13.5 meters.
Taynitskaya was built by the first of the towers of the modern Kremlin in 1484. Its name was due to the hiding-well, hidden in the base of the tower for the garrison in case of a siege.
The second in height, but the first in value was andRemains the Spassky Tower. It also belongs to the authorship of Pietro Solari, who opened the eastern line of the fortifications of the Kremlin by building this tower. Its gates were the main entrance to the capital of the Russian state - they were supposed to pass through them by foot and with their heads uncovered. The tower was adorned with a clock for a long time, but the main clock of our country, the Kremlin chimes, was installed in 1852. Their mechanism takes three of the ten floors of the Spassky Tower.
Kremlin stars from ruby glass decorateThe five highest towers - Borovitskaya, Troitskaya, Spasskaya, Nikolskaya and Vodovzvodnaya. Previously, on these towers, except Vodovzvodnaya, the imperial double-headed eagles were flaunting, but in 1930 the Bolsheviks that came to power decided to remove the legacy of the old regime. It was with such scarlet five-pointed stars that the Kremlin towers became famous all over the world.