Russia is a federal state, which consists of equal subjects of the Russian Federation.
The status of the Russian Federation is defined by the 1993 Constitution.
The subject of the Russian Federation is the territorial unit of Russia of the upper level.
In total there are 85 subjects in the federation.
Characteristics of subjects of the Russian Federation
Each federal subject other than federalThe executive bodies have their executive power in the person of the head (president) or the governor, as well as the legislative (regional parliaments) and the judicial (constitutional court of the entity). The subjects of the Russian Federation are guided not only by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, but also by their own constitution or by-laws, and also have legislation adopted by the regional parliament.
Activities of federal authorities and bodiesThe authorities of the subjects of the federation are based on the division of powers between them. The subjects of the Russian Federation have the fullness of state power in all matters not related to the joint management of the federation and federal subjects. The general powers of the Russian Federation and its subjects are: observance of federal legislation and laws of the subjects of the Russian Federation, as well as their compliance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and its own constitution (charter), ensuring protection of human and civil rights and freedoms, as well as of national minorities, observance of the rule of law and public order Security and the like.
Features of subjects of the Russian Federation
Russia has 22 republics, 9 territories, 46 regions, 3 federal cities, 1 autonomous region and 4 autonomous regions. Depending on the legal status, they are grouped into 3 groups.
Republics have the status of a state thatIs defined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and its own constitution. In the republics there are supreme bodies of power that have certain powers, for example, to establish state languages. Between the republics and the Federation, as a rule, bilateral agreements have been concluded, which gives a significant difference from other federal entities.
Autonomous entities, which includeAutonomous regions and autonomous region, are national-territorial entities. Autonomous regions have a special feature - they are not only part of the Russian Federation, but also part of the province or region. At the same time, they have the right to draft a federal law on their legal status. Autonomous entities are named by the name of nationalities or ethnic groups for which the territory is a historical homeland.
Edges, regions and cities of federal significanceRepresent administrative-territorial entities that are not formed on the basis of nationality. The status of these subjects is determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and its own charter.