The Arctic - a physical-geographical region of the Earth, which is adjacent to the North Pole.
It includes almost all of the Arctic Ocean and the islands in it, adjacent parts of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, the continental margin of North America and Eurasia.
Due to the severe climate of the region - one of the most difficult for human habitation.
People for the first time reached the coast of the NorthArctic Ocean about 30 thousand years ago. Archaeologists have found sites of ancient people in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the Republic of Komi. As early humans mastered the high latitudes, learning to survive in cold conditions, the adaptive changes occurred, there were northern populations of people. Mutation of the gene melanin they will better survive in such conditions. Outwardly, it appears as a light skin tone. Organisms indigenous hardened and have adapted to frost, to life conditions of a lack of vitamins due to the shortage of fruits and vegetables. Dogs, people learned to use as transportation. Today, much of the population of the Arctic - the northern indigenous peoples.
The most habitable part of the region - the Russian Arctic. There are more than a thousand high-latitude settlements and there are around 40 indigenous northern peoples - Nenets, coast-dwellers, Enets, Chukchi, Evenk, Negidal, Yukagirs, Chuvans etc. For centuries, they maintain a traditional way of life, settled the ancestors. Arctic ecosystems, extreme climate conditions have contributed to the formation of a special philosophy and culture, lifestyle.
Fisheries, reindeer herding, hunting and gathering- A traditional crafts. The peoples of the North in terms of food and accommodation, and the culture are completely dependent on Arctic ecosystems and environmental conditions. They are poorly adapted to the manifestations of modern civilization. Industrial development of Arctic oil and gas projects are a threat to the native habitats of ethnic groups and a threat to their existence.
In the Arctic, indigenous peoples live apartalien population is mainly engaged in the maintenance of transport routes and the mining industry. He lives it in the main cities. Part of the alien population arrive on time for work as doctors, teachers, merchants, policemen, administrators, etc.
It is believed that the human visitoradapted to the climate of the Far North for about a year, so doctors recommend to come to work in shifts for at least a year. If a person comes for a month and then return home, it is a strong stress for the body and the immune system may fall. This individual organisms of different people and exhibit different abilities to adapt.