The most important Christian festival was the Passover, Easter Sunday.
The prototype of the Christian Passover was Jewish Passover, or more precisely, Jewish, from which the Christian holiday has inherited its name.
Easter - is the Greek pronunciation, in this form the word has come to the Russian language of the Byzantine Empire. The Hebrew name of the feast pronounced somewhat differently - Passover, or Pesach, which means "the outcome."
The holiday is dedicated to the Jewish exodus from Egypt, wherethey were in bondage. In Christianity, the value has been reinterpreted: the outcome of the sin of slavery, which made possible the victory of the Saviour over death.
Date of Passover
Day of Passover, like all Jewishholidays, calculated according to the Jewish calendar, which is officially used in Israel, along with the Gregorian. The holiday is celebrated on the 15th day of the month of Nisan.
The Jewish calendar is associated both with the movement of the sun and the phases of the moon, so it does not coincide with the solar Gregorian and relative to the last date of the holiday is "wandering."
The beginning of each month in the Jewish calendar, falls on the new moon, and the middle - at the full moon. But the position of the sun, too, is taken into account, so the beginning of the month falls on the same season.
The month of Nisan, which celebrate Passover beginsthe new moon that follows the vernal equinox, ie, 20 of March. Counting 14 days from that date to give the date of the Jewish Passover. In 2014, the feast was celebrated on April 15th.
Pesach has a special place among the Jewish holidays, because he - the oldest of them.
On this day, as well as for following theThese weeks do not eat or even to keep in the house of bread and other flour dishes, the preparation of which is connected with the fermentation process (chametz). Permission is granted to only eat unleavened bread - matzah. For this reason, before the holiday spend much cleaning in the house, so that even the smallest crumbs of leavened bread left.
Along with traditional holiday matzah attributesThey are maror (bitter herbs: horseradish, basil and lettuce), hazeret (shredded greens) and charoset (a mixture of wine, grated figs, apples and nuts). All these dishes are served in the evening festive meal - Seder, and each of them has a special significance.
Maror and hazeret symbolizes the bitterness of suffering,that the Jewish people suffered in the Egyptian slavery. Haroset color reminiscent of the clay from which bricks are made in Egypt. This meal supposed to invite those who are for some reason unable to celebrate Passover with his family.
During the Seder, Jews not only eat special dishes, but also read out the story of the Exodus from Egypt. After completing the meal the faithful part with the words: "In the coming year - in Jerusalem"