Parathyroid adenoma - a benign hormone-active tumors. It is accompanied by excessive production of parathyroid hormone and symptoms of hyperparathyroidism.
If it is not removed in time, the prognosis for life can be unfavorable.
Effects of parathyroid adenoma
Adenoma parathyroid provokesdevelopment of hypercalcemia (high calcium levels in the blood and tissues). Hypercalcemia manifested bone (pathological fractures, osteoporosis), gastrointestinal (pancreatitis, stomach ulcers), kidney (nephrolithiasis), cardiovascular (hypertension) syndromes. Typical symptoms of parathyroid adenoma are loss of appetite, malaise, nausea, vomiting, a violation of stool, weight loss, constipation, bone pain, joint pain, muscle weakness.
The deposition of calcium in the heart muscle can cause acute myocardial infarction. In renal tubular necrosis develops acute renal failure.
The development of adenoma is sometimes accompanied bypolydipsia (strong thirst) and polyuria (excessive urine output), mental changes (depression, memory impairment, convulsions). As a result of hypercalcemia observed joint damage, dryness and itching of the skin, the deposition of calcium salts in the cornea of the eye, ears calcification. The diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma is put on the basis of laboratory tests (determination of calcium, parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, the daily calcium excretion), X-ray examination, data ultrasound, CT, MRI of the parathyroid glands, selective angiography, biopsy, including cytology material.
Parathyroid adenoma: treatment, prognosis
Treatment of parathyroid adenomasurgery. The operation should be done as develop irreversible changes can be rather differently in the body, and the prognosis for life is unfavorable. Before the operation is conducted conservative therapy aimed at combating hypercalcemia. The patient must follow a diet that limits foods high in calcium. Intravenous bisphosphonates are appointed infusion, an isotonic sodium chloride solution, forced diuresis. How much and in what doses to make an infusion, must determine on the testimony of the doctor. If developing hypercalcemic crisis, it is necessary the introduction of sodium bicarbonate, glucose, corticosteroids, cardiac glycosides. Following preparation of the patient is performed surgical removal of parathyroid adenoma.
In total hyperplasia or multiple adenomas removed and the parathyroid glands.
Postoperatively, the control is performedcalcium in the blood, the daily ECG monitoring. Usually after surgery the calcium level returns to normal rather quickly - within 2 days. In this case, the prognosis for a patient-friendly. Restoration of bone tissue occur within two years postoperatively. Sometimes it can remain bone deformation at the fracture site, which will hinder his career. Symptoms of the internal organs and the nervous system disappear after a few weeks. Forecast greatly deteriorates kidney disease, as nephrocalcinosis - is an irreversible condition that developed kidney failure can progress. In severe lesions other internal organs the prognosis for a person's life can also be unfavorable.