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How does the laptop work?


Laptop motherboard

The laptop is a convenient assistant and companion of the modern person.

It is less portable than a smartphone or tablet, but it allows you to use the same operating systems as on desktop computers.

The design and layout of the components of the laptop allowed to place them in a very limited volume.



The heart of the laptop is the motherboard. It differs greatly from the one used in the desktop computer, but it contains the same components: processor, chipset, RAM, ROM with BIOS, real-time clock with battery, etc. In most cases, the processor is located in the socket, as on the motherboard of a regular computer . But the fan on it - a special design. It blows the radiator, located not directly on the processor, but on a sealed hollow copper tube filled with refrigerant. The other end of this tube is attached to a polished plate, pressed through a thermal paste or a thermal padding to the processor. Offshoots from the tube lead to similar plates of other sizes, pressed to the chipset and video card. This cooling system is very flat, which is required in the notebook.


The video card is also unusual. It is located not perpendicular to the motherboard, but parallel to it. Instead of slots for its connection, connectors are used. A connector for connecting an external monitor is not on the video card, but on the motherboard. The RAM modules for access to which the lid is provided differ from those used in desktop computers by about half the length. They are called SO-DIMM. Sometimes one of these modules is located under the keyboard, which in this case is easy to remove. In a netbook, some of the memory can be soldered into the motherboard.


The hard drive and DVD drive are located on removableSled. Through the adapters they are connected to the connectors on the motherboard. The design of these units is chosen such that they consume a relatively small current and easily fit into the notebook body. Small is chosen and the voltage of their supply. If in desktop computers both nodes are powered by two voltages (5 and 12 V), then in the laptop - only one (5 V). In netbooks, solid-state drives, sometimes non-removable, are also used. And if a hard drive of the old type failed in the laptop, which is not available for sale, the machine can also be loaded from a flash drive.


The battery is connected to the motherboard.Board through a connector with contacts of considerable cross-section. The charge controller automatically starts and stops charging, switches the laptop from external to internal power and vice versa. If in the desktop computer the built-in power supply generates all the necessary voltages directly from the network, then in the notebook this conversion takes place in two stages. The external power supply generates one voltage, depending on the type of computer, from 12 (in netbooks) to 19 V. The rest of the necessary voltages are generated from the voltage of the power supply unit or the battery by converters located on the motherboard. Fans do not have power nodes.


The keyboard and touchpad are connected to the motherboardBoard plumes. There is no controller in the keyboard, it is located on the motherboard. In the touchpad, it is, as in a normal mouse. The screen is connected through a connector with a bundle of thin wires placed in a metallized cloth connected to the common wire of the laptop. Built-in speakers, as well as a bar with control buttons and LEDs are connected by ordinary wires, or loops as well. In the auxiliary miniature slots are placed Bluetooth, WiFi, and sometimes - and GPS (GLONASS). To them through even more miniature coaxial connectors are connected antennas. On the sides of the motherboard are placed outward connectors for connecting external devices, volume control, Bluetooth switches and WiFi.


The nodes of the laptop are very fragile for a reasonMiniaturization. It is enough to look at them once to understand why a portable computer requires careful handling. But if any of these sites fail, you do not need to be upset. To change them though and more difficultly, than in a desktop computer, but too it is possible.

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