How to make a basement? Usually this happens as follows: the pit is being excavated, the walls are being erected and blocked, and then the floor is concreted.
Although, practice shows that this simple technology is irrational. Such a cellar is very prone to uneven shrinkage, it does not even save the depth of its laying.
Wet soil aggravates the problem.
So what kind of technology should be used to make the basement comfortable and reliable?
It is much more economical and easier to make a basement, ifLay before it a monolithic slab of reinforced concrete on the bottom of the pit. It is already possible to erect walls from blocks or by means of formwork. The base plate itself needs to be protected with a layer or layers of waterproofing consisting of a polyethylene film and bituminous materials. This will protect the basement from the penetration of groundwater.
If the soil under the house is wet, then the walls with the outsideThe sides should be carefully smeared with hot bitumen at least twice (preferably more), then paste the roofing material in several layers or better a waterproof or hydroglass. Then you need to sprinkle the walls with a layer of dry sand.
The hot bitumen should be applied only then,When the weather is dry and clear. If it's going to rain? Fold. I want to note that even the best quality waterproofing of the walls of the basement will not relieve its owner of moisture by 100%. Through the seams, water will still leak.
To eliminate leaks, you can use new and effective material? Hydrotex, which eliminates any leaks, dries the walls, suppresses the fungus.
Monolithic (on a monolithic slab) cellars onInhomogeneous and weak soils work well. They are easily insulated with polystyrene from the inside. For this, the foam is glued to the wall and plastered over the mesh. Compared to traditional cellars, monolithic helps to significantly reduce the consumption of materials.
The basement should be laid to a depth of 1.3-1.5 m,Taking into account the location of the floor at an altitude of 0.9-1.05 m above the ground mark. The height of the cap in this case is 60-70 cm, and the thickness of the basement wall? 30 cm or more. If the basement, say, has a height of 45-60 cm, and the basement walls have a thickness of 40 cm, the basement should be laid at a depth of 1.6-1.75 m.
During the construction of the basement (as well as during theConstruction of the whole house) the important role is played by observance of cyclicity of works. Work on the construction and installation of the basement must be completed completely during the construction season.