Russian is the most common language in Europe. It created a lot of beautiful literary works, included in the golden fund of human culture.
It is also one of the UN working languages, along with English, French, Chinese, Arabic and Spanish.
And how did the Russian language come about?
In the days of Ancient Rus its inhabitantsSpoke different Eastern Slavic dialects, very different from the modern norms of the Russian language. Then, after the baptism of Rus at the end of the 10th century, the so-called Church Slavonic language, used in church services, began to exert a great influence on the spoken language. For a long time it was used as an official written language. The first monument of Old Russian literature, written in the Church Slavonic language, is the Novgorod Code, dating back to the beginning of the XI century.
The inhabitants of ancient Russia adopted many words fromPeoples with whom they had to contact - for example, the Greeks (Byzantines) who brought Christianity, nomadic peoples of Turkic origin, as well as Scandinavians (Varangians).
Gradually on the territory of ancient Russian principalitiesBegan to form two main groups of dialects: the northern and southern adverbs. They differed in some characteristic features. For example, for the northern dialect, "okanie" is noteworthy, and for the southern one - "Akane". The intermediate variant between these main groups was Central Russian dialects. It was the Central Russian dialects that belonged to Moscow.
As Moscow became the centerRussian lands, the Moscow dialect was becoming more widespread, displacing other dialects. After getting rid of the Mongol-Tatar yoke and especially after the Moscow Grand Dukes adopted the royal title, he began to be considered the official state language. In the XVI-XVII centuries. Russian language was supplemented with many new words of Latin, Polish and German origin.
In the era of Peter the Great, reform was carried outRussian language, aimed at making it more simple and accessible for learning. In addition, at the same time, the language was enriched with many new words that came from Holland, Germany and France. And under Catherine II at the end of the 18th century a new letter "E" entered the Russian alphabet.
After the October Revolution of 1917Formed the final version of the Russian alphabet, consisting of 33 letters. In addition, as a result of the rapid development of the mass media, mass literacy and large-scale migration of the population, the official Russian language almost completely supplanted numerous dialects from circulation.