Law and legal norms did not always exist.
At an early stage in the development of human society, relations between people were regulated by oral prohibitions and restrictions.
And only with the complication of the social system and the emergence of the foundations of statehood, there was a need to consolidate the rules of conduct in the form of written laws.
Why there was a need for laws
In a primitive society, the relationship betweenTribesmen did not differ in complexity and variety. And yet often they had to regulate them in order to avoid conflicts and misunderstandings. The role of the regulator in this case was played by customs, restrictions and prohibitions on certain actions.
Those who violated the establishment of the family were subjected to strict measures, including censure, physical punishment or expulsion from the community.
Over time, public relations are substantiallyHave changed. Complicated social structure of the community, there was private property. Conflicts between members of society became infrequent. This necessitated the appearance of a special structure for management and enforcement. So there was a state.
One of the functions of the state was precisely the regulation of relations between individual members of society. There was a need to document the rules of conduct in writing, limiting the freedom of people.
The appearance and development of laws
In the second millennium BC there areThe first written system of laws. One of the oldest sources, which allowed to speak about the emergence of the rule of law, are the laws of the Babylonian king Hammurabi. His code clearly defines the rights of the individual and property owners.
In the beginning, the source of the laws was the higher authoritiesState. The kings themselves determined which standards of behavior needed legislative fixation, they themselves ruled the court and imposed punishment for breaking the law. Subsequently, the monitoring functions passed to specially selected judges. There were specialists in the field of law who studied and interpreted the laws.
In the heyday of ancient Rome, the laws wereNew content. Many of the principles of Roman law in a slightly modified form have survived to the present day and are reflected in modern legislation. Later, mankind passed through the Middle Ages, when relations between people were most often regulated by the church, whose laws and regulations were called canons.
With the further development of civil societyThe system of legislation became more complicated. After the XII century, based on the provisions of Roman law in many European countries began to develop civil, general and international law.
Gradually, the laws began to regulate and relations between individual states.
Over the centuries-old history of law development lawsHave changed significantly. They began to take more into account the features of social structure and economic activity. The modern lawyer has to deal with complex systems of law. Knowledge of the laws and the ability to apply them in practice was allocated in a special direction, called jurisprudence.