Modern man draws much of his knowledge from the media.
But there were times when you could get new knowledge only from books.
The sheets of papyrus or parchment, written with neat signs, were rolled up or stapled together, and were the first books.
From the history of the appearance of books
Until now, oral legends have beenThe only source of information. The transfer of knowledge and experience was carried out in ancient times from person to person, from mouth to mouth. At the same time, information was often lost or distorted beyond recognition. To get rid of this shortcoming, people began to look for ways to consolidate knowledge on some material basis, using a drawing letter, and then a written speech.
The most developed ancient civilizations in the finalFinally invented writing. For this purpose, wooden plates, clay or wax tiles, sheets of soft metal were widely used. In ancient Egypt, for example, information was recorded on sheets of papyrus, made in a special way. The earliest records on the papyrus, folded into long scrolls, date back to the third millennium before the new era. We can assume that the Egyptian scrolls were the first books known in history.
The first handwritten books on parchment appearedMuch later, shortly before the onset of a new era. Sheets of such books were fastened together, forming small volumes. Because of the copying technology in those years could only dream of, the first books faithfully copied by hand specially trained people. Several masters could work on one book at once: one prepared parchment sheets, another diligently deduced written signs on them, the third worked on illustrations.
Further distribution of books
Time passed, writing spreadAnd required a large number of books. Parchment was a rather expensive material, and therefore it was unprofitable to make large runs out of it. This material was replaced by paper. Where and when it was first invented, it is unlikely to be established reliably. According to some reports, in China paper was used to make books in the I century.
Later this excellent material for booksBegan to be made in Japan, Korea, Central Asia and India. In Europe, paper came about in the X century. The best grades that went to make books were made of cotton or linen rags, and later the finely chopped wood went into the course. Paper books were much cheaper than those that were made from parchment, and therefore spread much wider.
The revolution in the publication of books occurred in the middle of the XV centuryCentury, when the German master Johann Gutenberg proposed an original way of printing. In his device for printing, he used metal letters and a ruler, through which it was possible to quickly collect entire pages. Then the letters were smeared with special paint and made the necessary number of impressions on paper. This method of producing books was relatively quickly spread. After that, books became available to a wide range of readers.