Cologne - a city located in the western part of Germany, in North Rhine - Westphalia. He is one of the oldest German cities, which played a major role in the formation and development of Europe.
It is not surprising, because its history dates back to the Roman era.
As confirmed by archaeological excavations, even5,000 years ago the ancient Celts had their fortifications on the territory of modern Cologne. However, the history of the city as a permanent settlement begins with the founding of Oppidum Ubiorum in 38 BC. e. This fortification was built by the commander of the Roman Emperor Augustus Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa after the left bank of the Rhine the Romans landed friendly Germanic tribe Ubii.
15 BC. e. commander Germanicus family living in this settlement, born daughter Agrippina. Becoming later the wife of Emperor Claudius, she declines to give his native settlement colony status. In '50 BC. e. Oppidum Ubiorum receives this status and renamed the Colony of Claudius and Agrippina the altar. In the Middle Ages by this name only left the word "colony", as it was called in common Cologne.
Since then, the city began to develop rapidly. In '85 he was declared the capital of Lower Germany, appear in it temples, administrative buildings and a theater. After another some 60 years, its population already has more than 15 000 people, while on the other side of the Rhine just started free possession of the Germanic tribes. A little later, in Cologne there is a mint and glass industry.
In 454, the Cologne finally winRipuarian Franks and almost half a century of the Roman period of ancient city ends. With 508 years of Cologne is the permanent residence of the archbishops, but in 1288, he becomes free from the power of the archbishop. By this time he already is the largest shopping center in Germany.
Since 1794 Cologne was ruledFrench, who destroyed many historical buildings and monuments in the city. And after 10 years in Cologne begins the Prussian period, during which the city grew rapidly again - it carried out a telegraph line, opened one of the first railway of Prussia branches, numerous plants and factories.
After Germany's defeat in the First World, CologneHe entered the French occupation zone. And in 1933, the power in the city passed into the hands of the Nazis. World War II brought to Cologne monstrous destruction, destroying 90% of the city buildings. However, in the early postwar years, the city begins active recovery, started a new production, under construction, banks, buildings, businesses and cultural facilities. Modern Cologne is the third area and the fourth most populous city in Germany, with a developed modern infrastructure, industry and rich history.