Cologne is a city located in the western part of Germany on the land of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is one of the oldest German cities, which played a big role in the formation and development of Europe.
It is no wonder, after all its history begins with the Roman epoch.
As evidenced by archaeological excavations, more5000 years ago, the ancient Celts had their own fortifications in the territory of modern Cologne. However, the history of this city as a permanent settlement begins with the founding of Oppidum Ubiuri in 38 BC. E. This fortification was built by the commander of the Roman Emperor Augustus Mark Vipsania Agrippa after the German-friendly German tribe descended on the left bank of the Rhine.
In the year 15 BC. E. In the family of the commander Germanicus, who lives in this settlement, the daughter of Agrippina is born. Becoming later the wife of Emperor Claudius, she inclines him to give the native settlement the status of a colony. In the year 50 n. E. Oppidum Ubirum receives this status and is renamed the Claudia Colony and the altar of Agrippina. In the Middle Ages, from this name there was only the word "Colony", and in the common people it was called Cologne.
From that time the city began to develop actively. In 85, it is declared the capital of Lower Germany, temples, administrative buildings and a theater appear in it. After another 60 years, its population already totals more than 15 000 people, while on the other side of the Rhine the free Germanic tribes were immediately in the possession. A little later, a mint and a glass industry appear in Cologne.
In 454, Cologne finally conquerRipuarian francs and almost half a century of the Roman period of this ancient city ends. Since 508, Cologne has been a permanent residence of archbishops, but in 1288 he became free from the authority of the archbishop. By this time it is already the largest trading center of Germany.
Since 1794 Cologne was under the authority ofThe French, who destroyed many historic buildings and monuments in the city. And after 10 years in Cologne, the Prussian period begins, during which time the city actively developed again - it carries a telegraph line, opens one of the first railway branches of Prussia, numerous factories and factories.
After the defeat of Germany in the first world, CologneEntered the occupation zone of France. And in 1933, power in the city passed into the hands of the fascists. The Second World War brought to Cologne monstrous destruction, destroying 90% of urban buildings. However, already in the first post-war years, active restoration begins in the city, a new production is being launched, banks, firms' buildings and cultural objects are being built. Modern Cologne is the third largest and fourth largest city in Germany, with a developed modern infrastructure, industry and a rich history.