Russia - the largest country in the world by area. It is located on the continent of Eurasia, it has access to three oceans - the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic.
Russia - a permanent member of the UN Security Council, is a member of the Group of Eight, a group of eight most developed and influential countries.
The name "Russia" is derived from the word "Rus"first met in the writings of Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, who ruled in the X century. On the origin of the term "Rus" and the nationality of the legendary prince Rurik historians still debate then underway. This can only be judged with some degree of certainty. The sources are the ancient chronicles, for example, the famous "Tale of Bygone Years", created by a monk of Kiev-Pechersk monastery in the beginning of the XII century.
According to chronicles data, in 862, the yearVarangian Prince Rurik was called to rule the inhabitants of the North-West Russia. And in the 882 th year of the Prince of Novgorod, Oleg, an associate of the deceased at the time of Rurik, seized power in Kiev, united under his rule the land of the northern and southern Slavs and laid the foundation for a powerful state - Kievan Rus. As a result of successful military and diplomatic activities of Kievan Rus became the largest state in Europe. Alas, then she broke up into separate principalities.
The onset of the feudal periodaccompanied by frequent and bloody feuds. As a result, wasteful Mongol invasion of the principalities fell under the rule of the Golden Horde, part - under the rule of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Novgorod lands were able to preserve and defend its independence.
Since the beginning of the XIV century gradually began to take shapethe new center of force - Muscovy. Leading skillful and cautious policy, the princes of Moscow gradually became more and more influential. The victory of Prince Dmitry Donskoy on the Kulikovo field in 1380, the year over the army of Khan Mamai demonstrated the weakness of the Golden Horde. After "standing on the Ugra" in 1480, the year of the Mongol-Tatar yoke officially ceased.
In 1547, the year the Grand Duke Ivan IV, entered thehistory with the nickname "the Terrible", took the title of king. During his state boundaries have expanded, were conquered Kazan and Astrakhan Khanate, began the development of Siberia.
In Europe, the Russian government calledMuscovy. It was not until the era of Peter the Great. Having achieved its main goal (the Baltic Sea), Peter renamed the state "Russian Empire". This happened in 1721, the year. Since then, the term "Russia" has become international.