Russia is the largest state in the world in terms of area. It is located on the continent of Eurasia, has an outlet to the three oceans - Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic.
Russia - a permanent member of the UN Security Council, is part of the Group of Eight, a group of eight most developed and influential states.
The name "Russia" came from the word "Rus"The first time he met in the works of the Byzantine emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, who ruled in the 10th century. The origin of the very term "Rus" and the nationality of the legendary Prince Rurik is still disputed by historians. This can only be judged with a certain degree of certainty. The sources are ancient chronicles, for example, the famous "Tale of Bygone Years", created by a monk of the Kiev-Pechersky Monastery in the early 12th century.
According to chronicle data, in 862-th yearVarangian prince Rurik was called to reign by the inhabitants of North-Western Russia. And in 882 the Novgorod prince Oleg, the associate of the deceased by that time Rurik, having seized power in Kiev, united under his authority the lands of the northern and southern Slavs and laid the foundation for a powerful state - Kievan Rus. As a result of successful military and diplomatic activities, Kievan Rus became the largest state in Europe. Alas, then it broke up into separate principalities.
The coming period of feudal disunityWas accompanied by frequent and bloody internecine strife. And as a result of the ruinous Mongol-Tatar invasion, part of the principalities fell under the rule of the Golden Horde, part under the rule of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Novgorod lands managed to preserve and defend their independence.
Since the beginning of the fourteenth century,The new center of power is the Moscow Principality. Leading a skillful and cautious policy, the Moscow princes gradually became more influential. The victory of Prince Dmitry Donskoi on the Kulikovo field in 1380 over the army of Khan Mamai showed the weakness of the Golden Horde. And after the "Standing on the Ugra" in 1480, the Mongol-Tatar yoke officially ceased.
In 1547, the Grand Duke Ivan IV, who enteredHistory with the nickname "Terrible", took the title of king. With it, the borders of the state expanded significantly, the Kazan and Astrakhan khanates were conquered, and the development of Siberia began.
In Europe, the Russian state was calledMuscovy. This went on until the time of Peter the Great. Having achieved its main goal (access to the Baltic Sea), Peter renamed the state in the "Russian Empire". It happened in 1721 year. Since then, the term "Russia" has become international.