Horses in modern times are practically not used as draft animals, but occasionally one can see an animal, harnessed to a carriage or cart, a real museum exhibit.
Despite modern materials, the harness, like the harness technique, has not changed for hundreds of years.
Types of harness
Depending on the type of harness usedThere are five main types of harness. In the arc-arc harness, two shafts are used. The horse's draft is transmitted through the collar, which is put on the neck of the animal.
Oglobelno-arc harness because of the wide distribution on the territory of Russia is otherwise called Russian.
Oglobelno-razmenochnaya harness is distinguished by the absence of an arc. Ogloblis are fastened with straps to the collar or to a wide strap - shorka. The draft is transmitted through the lines.
The construction-drawbar harness is used inWagons and agricultural machinery, which have a drawbar - a kind of shaft, fastened in the center of the wheel axle. In dvuhlovye carts, as a rule, horses are harnessed in pairs, like a hussock.
The construction harness is the simplest option. He has neither a shaft nor a shaft. Traction force is transmitted through the lines that are attached to the yoke or shorka.
Combined harness is used inMulti-horse carriages, carriages. It combines the construction and one of the above mentioned harnesses. An example can serve as a "troika" - the root is harnessed to the shafts, for the pristazhnyh they use a pick-up harness.
Russian horse harness
When harnessing a horse, you should strictly follow the order. Before harnessing, the horse is cleaned, check the completeness and serviceability of the harness.
Before the start of the harness, it is important to make sure that the horse has no injuries or painful sensations in the areas of contact with the harness.
Then the horse is put on a bridle, a saddle and a yoke. Saddle is located on the withers and serves to maintain the entire harness. The collar is turned over, put on and returned to the desired position on the neck.
On the back spread the helmet and fastened to the yoke. The glue is a leather strap that keeps the clamp from moving forward when coming downhill or abrupt braking.
After the horse is planted between the shafts and fasten them together with the arc on the yoke. The fastening is rawhide or tesmyanye guzhi on both sides of the yoke.
The next step is tightening the lower part of the yoke, called pliers, using a special strap - a siponi. After that, you can move on to fastening the entire structure to the saddler.
For this, the saddle is fixed with a girth,Passing it under the horse. A long belt, called the groove, both the shafts are fixed on the saddle, and they are slightly raised to transfer the weight of the harness from the yoke to the saddle, along with part of the draft is transmitted.
It remains to additionally fix the shaft with an abdominal belt that runs under the girth and attach the reins to the bridle rings for control.
Unharnessed horse in reverse order.