Chlorine can form several different oxides.
All are used in industry in large quantities, as demanded in many industrial fields.
Chlorine reacts with oxygen, a variety of oxides, the total number of which is as many as five species. All of them can be described by the general formula ClxOy. They chlorine valence changes from 1 to 7.
Valence different chlorine oxides is different: Cl2O - 1, Cl2O3 - 3, ClO2 - 4, Cl2O6 - 6, Cl2O7 - 7.
Chlorine oxide (I) are used for the production of hypochlorite that are strong bleaching and disinfecting agents.
Chlorine oxide (II) is actively used for bleaching flour, pulp, paper and other items, and for sterilization and disinfection.
Chlorine oxide (VI) oxide and chlorine (VII) used for the synthesis of organic compounds.
This oxide is obtained by two large scale manufacturing methods.
1. According to the method Peluso. Carry out the reaction between chlorine gas and mercury oxide. Depending on conditions, may form another compound of mercury, however, it remains the target product. Thereafter, chlorine monoxide gas is liquefied at a temperature of -60 degrees Celsius.
Reaction equation describing the method Peluso:
2HgO + Cl2 = Hg2OCl2 + Cl2O
HgO + 2Cl2 = HgCl2 + Cl2O
2. The reaction of chlorine with aqueous sodium carbonate by the reaction:
2Cl2 + 2Na2CO3 + H2O = 2NaHCO3 + Cl2O + 2NaCl
Sodium carbonate can be replaced by other carbonates of alkali or alkaline earth metals.
The only method for the industrial production of chlorine dioxide based on the reaction of sodium chlorate and sulfur dioxide in an acidic medium. The result of this interaction becomes reaction:
2NaClO3 + SO2 + H2SO4 = 2NaHSO4 + ClO2
In industry Cl2O6 prepared by reacting chlorine dioxide with ozone:
2ClO2 + 2O3 = 2O2 + Cl2O6
1. Careful heating perchloric acid with phosphoric anhydride leads to the separation of an oily liquid, which is a chlorine oxide (VII). The whole process is described by the reaction:
2HClO4 + P4O10 = H2P4O11 + Cl2O7
2. The second method of producing this oxide is associated with electricity. If electrolysis is carried out perchloric acid in the anode compartment can be found Cl2O7.
3. Heating under vacuum perchlorates transition metal results in the formation of chlorine oxide (VII). Most often heated perchlorate niobium or molybdenum.
Physical properties of oxides
Cl2O: under standard conditions brownish-yellow gas with a chlorine odor and at a temperature below 2 degrees Celsius golden-red liquid. Explosive in high concentrations.
ClO2: under standard conditions - a gas with a characteristic smell of red and yellow color at temperatures below 10 degrees Celsius - a red-brown liquid. It explodes the light, in the presence of reducing agents and under heating.
Cl2O6: unstable gas, which begins to decompose at a temperature of from 0 to 10 degrees Celsius to form chlorine dioxide at 20 degrees Celsius chlorine forms. Due to the formation of chlorine dioxide - explosive.
Cl2O7: colorless oily liquid, which when heated above 120 degrees Celsius explodes. Can detonate on impact.