In the upper part of the stratosphere of the Earth, at an altitude of 20 to 50 km, there is a layer of ozone - triatomic oxygen.
Under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, a molecule of ordinary oxygen (O2) attaches one more atom, and as a result an ozone molecule (O3) is formed.
Protective layer of the planet
The more ozone is in the atmosphere, theA greater amount of ultraviolet radiation it is able to absorb. Without protection, the radiation will be too intense and will cause significant damage to all life and thermal burns, and a person can lead to skin cancer.
If all the ozone of the atmosphere is evenly distributed over a territory measuring 45 square kilometers, its thickness will be only 0.3 cm.
The harm of ozone on the surface of the planet
When exhaust fumes and industrial emissionsReact with the sun's rays, as a result of photochemical reactions, ground-level ozone is formed. Usually this phenomenon occurs in megacities and large cities. The inhalation of such ozone is dangerous. Since this gas is a strong oxidant, it can easily destroy living tissues. Suffer not only people, but also plants.
The destruction of the ozone layer
In 70 years during the research it was noticed,That gas freon, used in air conditioners, refrigerators and cans, with a huge speed destroys ozone. Having risen in the upper layers of the atmosphere, Freons give off chlorine, which spreads the ozone into ordinary and atomic oxygen. In the place of such interactions, an ozone hole is formed.
From what protects the ozone layer
Ozone holes are ubiquitous, but withBy changing a multitude of factors, they are overlapped by ozone from adjacent layers of the atmosphere. Those, in turn, become even more subtle. The ozone layer acts as the only barrier to the destructive ultraviolet and radiation radiation of the sun. Without the ozone layer, the human immune system would be destroyed.
According to scientists, the decrease in the ozone layer by only 1% increases the probability of cancer incidence by 3-6%.
Reduction of the amount of ozone in the atmosphereUnpredictably change the climate on the planet. Since the ozone layer delays heat, which dissipates from the Earth's surface, as the ozone layer depletes, the climate will become colder, the direction of some winds will change. All this will lead to natural disasters.
The Montreal Protocol
In 1989, most of theMembers of the UN, signed an agreement under which the production of ozone-depleting freons and gases should be stopped. According to scientists, after the signing of the agreement, the ozone layer should be fully restored by 2050.