Thinking develops from an early age.
At the age of 5 the child must operate with suchCategories of logical thinking, as generalization, comparison, systematization, classification. In order for these techniques to take shape, the child must rely on visual material, since he still knows the world through visual-figurative thinking.
That is, when a child develops some skills, one must rely on the available skills.
The method of comparison presupposes the establishment of general,Similar features in subjects and their differences. To the child could see different properties, you need to teach him the analysis of the subject from all sides, to compare one object with another. If you pre-select items for such a comparison, you can learn to see in them those properties that were previously unavailable to his mental gaze.
Next step ? To teach to determine the general features of subjects of study and distinctive. It is necessary to begin with the definition of distinctive features and only then to proceed to generalization. First, two subjects are used, and then several.
After this, one must learn to determine the essential andNon-essential features of the object. In a visual material, an essential feature should be visible immediately. For example, two flowers may differ from each other and from other parts of the plant, but all flowers have one task? bring the fruits ? This is the most essential sign of the flower.
Generalization and classification? This is one of the most difficult to master the methods of thinking. Classification? This division of all subjects into certain classes, based on their most significant features. To learn how to relate an object to a particular class, the child needs to know generalizing words. They learn them in the process of communicating with adults and children, in the process of learning. The task of the teacher? Provide it with such words-categories. The process of developing the ability to classify takes place in several stages. First, the child collects items in the group, but does not know how to name it. Then he tries to give them a common word, but chooses the name of one of the grouped objects, or the action that can be done with these objects. He then defines the generic concept for this group. And, at last, it distributes objects into classes.
After mastering the comparison, generalization andClassification, the child learns the systematization of knowledge. To do this, you need to learn to find the patterns of location of objects, objects with a common feature. To help the child develop this skill, it is necessary to offer a task in which to some already ordered subjects one needs to add one more. First, it should be visual signs. Here the child himself must find the sign by which the objects are ordered. Next, you need to offer a task to organize the objects, which are arranged in a random order. This task is more complex and it is aimed at developing the ability to operate with invisible, that is, abstract signs. This task is given orally and his child decides only in the head.