Modern Russia emerged from the collapse of the former Soviet Union and in many respects has preserved features of the old social order.
After becoming an independent state, the Russian Federation was facing many social, economic and political problems.
At the present stage of development it is important to create conditions for the country's sustainable development and the basis of civil society.
One of the peculiarities of the political developmentRussia - to find ways for the formation of a stable political system. Until now, the public debate continues on whether the country should develop by the European and American models, or should it follow the original Russian way. At the moment, Russia in its political development is committed to building a balanced governance structure based on a combination of the advantages of presidentialism to parliamentary activity.
In the two decades that have passed since the collapse of theUSSR, Russia firmly on the path of capitalist development. There were enterprises based on private property, the increase in the number of small property owners and those engaged in individual entrepreneurial activity. However, the level of industrial production grows slower pace, many large enterprises are closed, freeing up labor. The main source of wealth of the state are natural and energy resources, sold abroad.
The state in its domestic policydeclares the priority of the social sphere. However, concern about the increase in the standard of living often turns into empty promises and projects that are not backed by real actions and financing. The registered unemployment rate in Russia in September 2013 amounted to almost 5.3%, and has a tendency to grow. Employment situation exacerbates competition from migrant workers from CIS countries, which greatly increases the social tension not only in the capital but also in regions.
Over the last two decades under the influenceeconomic reforms began to take shape a new social structure. The number of small and medium-sized businesses, as well as those who are engaged in the service sector and trade. Experts note the presence of more than ten times the gap between the incomes of the richest and the poorest Russians. Russia's population is slowly declining, despite government measures to stimulate the birth rate.
Culture is in prolonged crisis,Russian education and science. This is due to the fact that these institutions of society can not establish guidelines that can serve as a basis for the formation of an ideology capable of uniting people of different social levels. Against the background of searches of national idea is increasingly developing associations of citizens and other elements of civil society, which demonstrates the growing interest of citizens to what is happening in her political and social processes.