Hydrogen in its pure form on Earth is rare, but it is very common in compounds: it is contained in water, in plant and animal organisms, in natural gases.
In space, it is the most common element.
You will need
- Edition for general chemistry or textbook on chemistry 8-9 grade.
In order to determine hydrogen, it is necessaryKnow some of its properties. Some of them will help to cope with the task in a short time, and some require a chemical laboratory. It is not necessary to use all methods, sometimes one or two.
Hydrogen Is the lightest of all gases. For example, the task may be to determine hydrogen, having several vessels with unknown gases. In this case, it is necessary to pay attention to the vessel - hydrogen must be either inverted or in the closed (possibly glass, which can be removed for further determination). Otherwise, the hydrogen will evaporate. This gas does not have a smell or color.
During ignition, hydrogen burns non-luminousFlame, while water is formed. A good way to determine, but very dangerous, because A mixture of hydrogen and oxygen is called an explosive gas because of its ability to explode. Although it should be noted that this reaction will not work at low temperatures. Only at 300 ° C a small amount of water begins to form, at 500 ° C there is a fire, and at 700 ° C there is an explosion.
If the gas is passed over the heated copper oxide,Then copper will recover - the result is a reddish metal. To conduct this experiment, it is necessary to comply with safety rules and, preferably, is in appropriate conditions (in the laboratory).
Also, the change in temperature can help in the determination of hydrogen. At -240? C and under pressure it liquefies, at
-252.8 ° C under normal atmospheric pressure - boils. If the boiling process does not stop, evaporating the liquid, the hydrogen will take the form of solid, transparent crystals.
There is another way in which hydrogenCan be determined even in different mixtures - this is a chromatographic method of determination (chromatography is a physicochemical method of separation of substances by distributing components between two phases). A significant disadvantage of this method is that not everyone has access to appropriate instruments in the laboratory and qualifications for working with them. But this method is very accurate.