Condensers can be connected in series and in parallel.
The resultant capacity in both cases is calculated by the formulas.
This connection is used in cases where there are no capacitors with the required parameters, but there are others.
You will need
- - soldering iron-
- - wire-
- - cutting pliers-
- - calculator.
Any capacitors can only be connected,When they are discharged and disconnected from other elements of the circuit. Do not discharge them short-circuited - use a suitable load. Connect it with insulated wires, without touching live parts. Discharging the capacitor, check with a voltmeter that it is really discharged, also using probes with insulated wires and handles and not touching current-carrying parts.
Before carrying out capacitor capacitance calculationsShould be translated into the same units. In this case, using the SI system is irrational, since the incoming unit - Farad - is very large. Depending on which capacitors you connect, you can use picofarads, nanofarads or microfarads.
By connecting capacitors in parallel, the resultantCapacity can be calculated simply by adding the capacitances of all the capacitors. The working voltage of this design will be equal to the smallest of the operating voltages of the capacitors entering into it.
With series connection of capacitorsFirst find the reciprocal of the capacity of each of them, then add these quantities, and then find the reciprocal of the sum. The inverse value is the result of dividing one by a number. This looks like this: C = 1 / (1 / C1 + 1 / C2 + ... + 1 / Cn), where Result is the resultant capacitance, and C1 ... Cn is the capacity of the capacitors in the serial chain. With the working voltage of such a structure is more difficult. In theory, when capacitors of the same capacitance are connected in series, it is sufficient to add their operating voltages, and if their capacitances are different, then the voltages are distributed to them inversely proportional to the capacitances. In practice, the spread of parameters and leakage can lead to unpredictable stress distribution. Therefore, it is most reliable to follow the same rule as for a parallel connection: the working voltage of the whole structure is equal to the working voltage of that of the capacitors for which it is the smallest.
When mixed (series-parallel)Connecting the capacitors, divide the structure into groups of capacitors connected only in series or only in parallel. Calculate the parameters of each of the groups, and then treat it as one capacitor with the appropriate parameters. After that, look at how these groups are connected - in series or in parallel - and calculate the parameters of the entire structure according to the appropriate formula. Connect the polar capacitors in the same polarity, and in the same polarity, include the design in the circuit where it will work. To connect the two polar capacitors even in the same capacitance in order to obtain the non-polar capacitor is not advisable - the dispersion of the parameters and the leakage can lead to their failure. At least one polar capacitor makes the entire structure polar.
Sometimes electrolytic capacitors shunt(Joining in parallel) ceramic of significantly smaller capacity. In this case, it is not necessary to consider anything by formulas, because the addition of capacity can be neglected. And they do so not to increase the capacity, but to filter high-frequency noise, which are not removed by electrolytic capacitors due to parasitic inductance.