The Russian state began to evolve over a thousand years ago and in its development several stages passed.
One of the most difficult and dramatic of them is the time of feudal disunity. Its signs appeared already in the middle of the XI century.
Historians identify several reasons for the emergence of feudal disunity in Russia.
Prerequisites for feudal disunity
Traditionally it is believed that the feudal periodFragmentation began in Kievan Rus in the first third of the 12th century. But some signs of political disunity of the Russian lands were visible long before that. In fact, Kievan Rus was already at that time a number of independent principalities. At first, Kiev was the most powerful center of the country, but over the years its influence weakened, and leadership became only formal.
At the end of the XI century, there was a steady growthPopulation of cities, contributed to the strengthening of urban settlements. The natural economy made individual princes quite independent large owners of fiefdoms. Small principalities could produce almost everything that was required for life, and depended little on commodity exchange with other lands.
Russia at that time did not have a strong, powerfulAnd a charismatic ruler who could unite the country under his authority. To dominate all the Russian lands, it required sufficient authority and outstanding personal qualities. In addition, many princes in Russia were many children, which inevitably led to strife, the struggle for inheritance and the isolation of the descendants of the princes.
Rus during the period of fragmentation
The sons of Yaroslav the Wise, who for the time being togetherMade military campaigns and actively defended the Russian lands, eventually dispersed in views on the management of lands, began to quarrel among themselves and staged a long and brutal struggle for power. In 1073 Svyatoslav expelled Izyaslav from Kiev, the eldest of the brothers.
The system of inheritance adopted in those daysContributed to civil strife and fragmentation. When the old prince died, the right to reign was usually transferred to the elder member of the clan. And most often they became the prince's brother, which caused resentment and irritation of his sons. Not wishing to put up with their position, the heirs tried in every way to push opponents away from power, without stopping before bribery, betrayal and direct use of force.
Vladimir Monomakh tried to correct the situation,Introducing a new system of succession to the throne. However, it was she who later became the cause of enmity and fragmentation, since she made power a privilege of local princes. At the beginning of the 12th century, the situation began to heat up, and internecine clashes took a bloody character. It came to the point that individual princes brought warlike nomads to their lands to fight their enemies.
Rus consistently split first intoFourteen principalities, and by the end of the thirteenth century the number of separate independent lands had increased to fifty. The consequences of fragmentation were deplorable for Rus. The petty princes could not counterpose the external threat to significant forces, and therefore the boundaries of the principalities were constantly attacked by steppe nomads, who sought to use the political situation of weakened neighbors. Feudal fragmentation also became the main reason why Russia was under the rule of the Tatar-Mongol invaders.