Rickets is a disease known to mankind since ancient times.
It affects only children of the first years of life, as a rule - not older than three years.
Now children suffer from rickets less often than before, but nevertheless the disease remains common, especially in the northern regions.
Causes of rickets
Rickets is characterized by a violation of the formationBones due to a shortage of their mineralization. This condition is due to a violation of calcium phosphate metabolism or a deficiency or a violation of absorption of vitamin D.
Premature infants are more often ill with rickets. A huge role is played by the ecological situation in the area where the child is growing - the pollution of the environment with salts of heavy metals increases the risk of the disease.
There are the following causes of rickets in children:
- lack of solar irradiation (in the body vitamin D is synthesized mainly under the influence of ultraviolet rays) -
- malnutrition (nutritionUnadapted mixtures containing little vitamin D, prolonged breastfeeding with insufficient nutrition of the mother and late introduction of complementary foods, lack of animal protein in the diet)
- impaired absorption of vitamin D (this is possibleWith some diseases, for example, with celiac disease, chronic liver and kidney diseases, metabolic disorders, the taking of certain medications, particularly anticonvulsants) -
- low motor activity of the child-
Symptoms of rickets
In the early stages,Neurological signs of the disease - the child is restless, sleeps poorly, there may be a decrease in appetite and muscle hypotension. The early stage of rickets is characterized by a profuse sweating with a sharp odor, while the scalp sweats heavily, the child can rub on the pillow, which results in a bald head. Diagnosis of the disease in the early stages is difficult because of the similarity of the signs of the disease with other neurological disorders.
The height of the disease is characterized by changesBones. Because of the appearance of foci of softening of the bone, the shape of the skull changes, the skeleton of the thorax changes (in the sternum it protrudes, and in the region of the back a hump is formed). The most famous sign of rickets is the curvature of the legs in the form of the letters O or X - also formed at this stage of the disease.
Perhaps the appearance of rachitic "beads" andRachitic "bracelets" - thickening of bone tissue on the ribs, bones of forearms and legs. Violated the functions of internal organs, often diagnosed with a delay in neuropsychic development. The active phase of the disease stops before two or three years even without treatment, but after recovery bone deformations can remain for life, often at school age in children who have had rickets, myopia develops.
Treatment of rickets
For the speedy cure of rickets, the rightDay regimen, daily walks, encouragement of the child's physical activity, adequate nutrition. To support muscle tone, baths with salts and pine extract, therapeutic massage and therapeutic exercises are prescribed.
Specific treatment consists in prescribingVitamin D (in aqueous or oily solution), sometimes in combination with calcium and phosphorus preparations. Dosage of preparations of vitamin D is selected only by the doctor, including when they are prescribed for preventive purposes.
It is impossible to prescribe a vitamin D to a child - because of its property to accumulate in the body, an overdose can lead to serious consequences.
In severe bone deformities, treatment is prescribedOrthopedic physician. Up to 4 years, bone changes are corrected with plaster casts, later surgery is possible, but in neglected cases, the effects of the disease are noticeable throughout life.
It is very important to prevent rickets - a fullNutrition of pregnant and lactating mothers, preventive doses of vitamin D in the winter, the daily stay of the child in the open air. Daily irradiation with indirect sunlight for 10-30 minutes at least the face and hands significantly reduces the chances of the disease.