Despite the fact that care for the grapesThe whole season is necessary, spring is the most important period influencing the further development of the bush, as well as the quality and quantity of the harvest. Care for grapes in the spring includes the opening of the vine after wintering, pruning with the subsequent formation of the bush, as well as combating diseases and pests.
It is extremely important to perform these actions on time to maximize the healthy and full growth of the bush.
Opening of the vine
Beginning of grape care in the spring immediately afterThe end of severe frosts, when the air temperature does not drop below -5 ° С. During this period, it is necessary to release the bush from covering material or land, which was pricked with a vine.
In regions that differ lateFrosts, or in unsuccessfully located places of planting grapes, the material should be removed later, and to get the required oxygen from the vine, small holes must be made in it. In this case, the covering material is removed after the buds awaken.
In the period of protracted spring, as well as in regions withA cool climate to protect the grapes from frosts over a bush is built a small greenhouse that will protect the vivifying vine from a sharp drop in temperature. But in order for the vine to receive a sufficient amount of air and sun, it is necessary to open the greenhouse during the day.
Identification and control of bacterial cancer
After the bushes are opened, spring care forGrapes need to continue to inspect the vines to identify frozen, broken and sick twigs. The presence of painful growths on the shoots may indicate the defeat of the plant with bacterial cancer and the need for urgent measures. For this it is recommended:
- remove areas affected by the disease and burn them,
- treat the cutting sites with hydrogen peroxide or manganese-
- after drying them, cover the damaged areas with a garden-
- Reduce irrigation and feeding 2 times to activate the immune system of the bush to fight the disease, and active growth of grapes.
Proper care for the vine in the spring will restore the diseased bushes and subsequently get a good harvest from them.
For active and healthy growth of the fruit-bearing vineIt is necessary to prune the grapes in the spring, freeing the bush from old and unnecessary shoots. Care for grape in the spring involves cutting old and last year's young shoots to 80% of the total.
The basis of the grape bush are the sleeves -Perennial branches providing food for the whole bush. Their life cycle is 4-6 years, after which they are removed, and young branches of placement are used instead. On each sleeve it is necessary to leave on some strong young shoots which at growth will not stir to each other. In this case, the sleeve itself must be cut: the upper one - up to 12 kidneys, the lower one - up to 4.
The pruning of the vine is made with a sharp pruner to avoid stratification of the slices. Sites of cuts are processed by garden var.
Spraying grapes from diseases and pests
The next stage of spring care for grapesAfter pruning is spraying plants to protect them from harmful insects and common diseases such as mildew, oidium, anthracnose and gray mold.
There are two types of drugs for spraying -Chemical and biological. Many gardeners try to avoid the use of chemicals that, in their opinion, can poison the berry. However, this is not the case, and the maximum they are harmful is by poisonous vapors with direct spraying, which is easily correctable if elementary safety rules are observed. But chemistry has an undeniable advantage: a more efficient and quicker spectrum of action. Biological preparations are not so poisonous, the effect of their use is reduced, therefore treatment from diseases and harmful insects will have to be carried out several times.
Care for grape in the spring means spraying the bushes before budding buds with the following solutions:
- Bordeaux mixture - struggle and prevention with diseases of fungal type-
- oxychium - protection against ticks and other harmful insect-
Carbofos is an insecticide.
When spraying with a Bardotic mixture, it is necessary to treat not only the bush, but also the soil around, while the temperature of the solution should be within 30 ° C.
For the treatment of grapes with biological solutions in the spring period, you can advise preparations "Biosporin", "Baikal-EM1" and "Guapsin".
Only the proper care of grape in the spring and timely implementation of these actions will practically serve as a pledge of the subsequent collection of a good harvest and an abundance of ripe bunches.