In order to select and calculate the foundation, you should know several important characteristics of the soil on the construction site.
Take samples and draw conclusions about the type of soil and its humidity can be independently.
The first thing that a developer should learn about hisThis is the type of soil and its bearing capacity. The density of the soil depends directly on how closely the groundwater approaches the surface. These indicators are decisive for choosing the type of building that will be erected on this construction site.
How to determine the moisture level of the soil and its type?
First you need to take soil samples at depth20-25 cm and 90-100 cm. For this, dig holes and take a sample of soil. Then one by one, each of them is rubbed between the palms as if wanting to get a round and long "sausage". Further they draw a conclusion, being guided by the following regularities:
• If the soil "slides" well, plastic and elastic, and the palms become wet, it means that at this level of occurrence there is a clay layer with a high water content.
• If the "strip" is quite fragile, with cracks along the edges, it is semi-moist loam.
• When the soil in the process of rolling falls into small lumps - sandy loam.
• It is impossible to get a "sausage" from a dry sample with a high sand content. And the larger the grain of sand, the higher the bearing capacity of the soil.
• To determine how highGround water, dig a hole of 2 meters depth and observe if water does not accumulate on the bottom. If this is the case, then the groundwater level (groundwater level) is high on the site.
Rules for calculating the foundation depending on the level of groundwater
Houses with light weight (carcasses, foam blocks andAerated concrete, sandwich panels, panel, samannye) can be put on the MZL (shallow-banded foundation foundation) if the UGW in this area is below its sole by 20-40 cm. If the UGV is above these marks, ring drainage is arranged.
At a low level of UGW (water below 5-6 m fromSurface of the soil) it is possible to erect heavier buildings (brick, glued beams, concrete blocks or slabs), the basis for which can serve as a recessed ribbon foundation (its sole should be below the freezing point of the soil by 20-30 cm).
Base from a monolithic slab with high HWSShould be built on a "floating" pillow, since the soil on the site is saturated with moisture and strongly puchynistaya, regardless of its type. The foundation pillow will act as a shock absorber and the foundation will not collapse.
The columnar base can be installed with any GWB, but if it is high, drainage is required.
Screw piles are the optimal choice for mobile and moisture-saturated soils.
To not make a mistake with choosing the type of house foundationAnd calculation of the depth of its foundation, you need to know about what TPG (freezing point of the ground) in this region. After analyzing the revealed characteristics of the construction site, it is decided which foundation for these conditions will be as reliable as possible.