In order to select and calculate the foundation, you should know a few important characteristics of soil at the construction site.
Take samples and to draw conclusions about the type of soil and its moisture content can be yourself.
The first thing you should know about your developerthe site is soil type and its bearing capacity. The density of the soil depends on how close fit to the surface of the ground water. These indicators are decisive for the choice of the type of building to be erected on this site.
As a self-determine moisture levels of the soil and its type?
You first need to take the soil samples at a depth of20-25 cm and 90-100 cm. To do this, dig a hole and take a soil sample. Then one by one each of them rubbed between the hands, as if wanting to get round and a long "sausage". Next conclude, focusing on the following laws:
•; If the soil is "slipping" good plastic and elastic, and palms are wet, so at this level of occurrence in the area is a clay layer with high water content.
•; If you get "the strip" is quite brittle, with cracks around the edges - is a semi-moist loam.
•; When the soil in the process of rolling shatters into small lumps - sandy loam.
•; Because of the dry sample with a high content of sand to get a "sausage" is impossible. And the larger the grains, the higher load bearing capacity of the soil.
•; To determine how high fitground water, dig a hole 2 meters depth and watch, does not accumulate in the water if the bottom. If so, the GWL (ground water level) in the area is high.
Rules of calculation of foundation, depending on the level of ground water
Houses with a light weight (karkasniki from foam blocks andaerated concrete, of the sandwich panels, panel itself) can be put on MZL (melkozaglublenny tape base) if the groundwater table in the area is lower than the soles of his 20-40 cm. If the groundwater level above marks data, arrange the annular drainage.
At GWL low (water below 5-6 meters from thethe soil surface) can be built heavier buildings (brick, of laminated veneer lumber, concrete blocks or slabs), the basis for which can serve as a buried strip foundations (his sole should be below the frost line in the 20-30 cm).
The base of the monolithic slab with a high groundwater tableWe need to build on the "floating" cushion, as the soil is saturated with moisture at the site and much heaving, regardless of its type. Pillow foundation will act as a shock absorber, and the destruction of the foundation will not happen.
Columnar base can be installed in any GWL, but if it is high, it is required to do the drainage.
Screw piles - the optimum choice for mobile and saturated soil moisture.
Not to be mistaken with the choice of the type of foundation at homeand the calculation of the depth of his foundation, you need to know about what the TBC (soil freezing point) in the region. After analyzing the identified characteristics of the construction site shall take a decision on what the foundation for these conditions will be the most reliable.