In the Middle Ages, castles were built toProtection of city residents and to ensure security for the feudal lord and his family who lived in it. Most medieval castles were built from the 9th to the 12th century in the territory of modern Britain, France, Ireland, Denmark, Belgium, Austria, Sweden and Italy.
In its completed form, the castle was a small city where the feudal family lived, its servants and workers, as well as other "townspeople".
Where did the locks
Locks were often built near water bodies, as the seas and rivers provided a great view for tracking down and attacking foreign invaders.
The reserve of water made it possible to keep ditches and ditches,Which were an indispensable part of the castle's defensive system. The locks also functioned as administrative centers, and water bodies helped to facilitate the collection of taxes, because the rivers and seas were important trade waterways.
Also, castles were built on high hills or in rock cliffs, which were difficult to attack.
Stages of the construction of the castle
At the beginning of the construction of the castle in the land aroundThe locations of the future building were dug out. Their contents formed inside. The result was a mound or a hill, called "mott". It was later built and the castle.
Then the walls of the castle were built. Often the builders erected two rows of walls. The outer wall was below the inner wall. There were towers for the defenders of the castle, a drawbridge and a lock. On the inner wall of the castle were built towers, which were used for living. The basement rooms of the towers were intended for storing food in case of siege. The area surrounding the inner wall was called "bailey". On the site there was a tower where the feudal lord lived. Locks could be supplemented by extensions.
What did the locks
The material from which the locks were made,Depended on the geology of the area. The first locks were built of wood, but later stone was used as a building material. In the construction of sand, limestone, granite.
All work on construction was done manually.
The castle walls rarely consisted entirely of solidStone. Outside, the walls were made of processed stones, and stones of uneven shape and different sizes were laid out on its inner side. These two layers were combined with a lime mortar. The solution was prepared directly at the site of the future structure, and with it, stones were also stained.
Wooden construction sites were erected on site. At the same time, horizontal beams were stuck into the pits made in the walls. Above them, boards were laid across them. On the walls of castles from the Middle Ages, you can see the square grooves. These are the marks from the scaffolding. Upon completion of construction, the building niches were filled with limestone, but eventually it fell off.
The windows in the locks were narrow holes. On the castle tower, small openings were made so that the defenders could shoot arrows.
What did locks cost?
If it was a royal residence, then forSpecialists were hired throughout the country. So the king of medieval Wales, Edward the First, built his ring castles. Bricklayers cut stones into blocks of the right shape and size, using a hammer, chisel and measuring tools. This work required high skill.
Stone castles were an expensive treat. King Edward almost ruined the state treasury, spending 100,000 pounds on their construction. About 3,000 workers were involved in the construction of one castle.
The construction of locks took from three to tenyears. Some of them were built in the war zone, and more time was required to complete the work. Most castles, built by Edward the First, still stand.