In the Middle Ages, castles were built for the purpose ofprotection of city residents and to secure the lord and his family living in it. Most medieval castles were built from the 9th to the 12th century in what is now the United Kingdom, France, Ireland, Denmark, Belgium, Austria, Sweden and Italy.
In its final form the castle is a small town, where the family lived the feudal lord, his servants and workers, as well as other "citizens".
Where built castles
Castles are often constructed close to water, as the sea and rivers provide a great review for stalking and attacking foreign invaders.
Water tank allowed to keep ditches and ditches,which is an indispensable part of the defensive system of the castle. Locks also function as administrative centers, and reservoirs helped to facilitate the collection of taxes, for the river and the sea is an important trade waterways.
Also castles built on high hills or cliffs in the rocks on which it was difficult to attack.
Stages of construction of the castle
At the beginning of the construction of the castle in the land aroundthe location of the future building dug ditches. They evolved the contents inside. The result was a mound or hill, which was called "Mott". It later was built the castle.
Then the walls of the castle were built. Often builders erected the walls of two rows. The outer wall was lower than the inside. It is a tower for the defenders of the castle, the drawbridge and gateway. On the inside of the castle wall constructed towers that used to reside. Towers Basement rooms intended for the storage of food in case of siege. A site that is surrounded by an inner wall called the "Bailey". On the site was a tower, where the lord lived. Locks can be supplemented by annexes.
What do locks
The material from which manufactured locks,It depended on the geology of the area. The first locks were built of wood, but later as a building material began to use stone. In construction, use sand, limestone, granite.
All work on the construction was done by hand.
Wall locks rarely consist entirely of solidstone. Exterior wall cladding was made from hewn stones, and with its inner side uneven shape laid stones and different sizes. These two layers are joined by means of mortar. The solution is prepared directly on the site of the future construction, and with it also whitewashed stones.
On the construction site were erected wooden scaffolding. This horizontal beams driven into the work done in the walls of the pit. On top of them put across the board. On the walls of the castles of the Middle Ages can be seen square grooves. This is the mark of the scaffolding. On completion of the construction niche filled with limestone, but he fell off over time.
The windows in the castles were narrow openings. On the tower of the castle small openings were made to the defenders could shoot arrows.
The Cost of locks
If it was a royal residence, thenConstruction hired experts across the country. Since medieval Wales, King Edward built his first ring locks. Bricklayers cut stones on the right shape and size of blocks using a hammer, a chisel, and measuring instruments. This work required great skill.
Stone castles were expensive. King Edward almost bankrupted the state treasury, spending on them the construction of 100 000 pounds. The construction of the castle around 3 000 workers were employed.
The construction of the locks took from three to tenyears. Some of them were built in the area of military operations, and to do the work needed more time. Most of the castles built by Edward the first, still stand.