The founders of Marxist philosophy were the German thinkers of the mid XIX century Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Its main ideas and principles set out in the main work of Karl Marx's "Capital".
Stages of development of Marxist philosophy
Formation of Marx and F. Engels as a thinker was influenced by German classical philosophy. The main sources of synthesis, which gave the world the true philosophy - dialectical materialism - became humanistic materialism of Feuerbach and the dialectics of Hegel. The philosophy of Karl Marx evolved throughout his life and has developed from 1848. Then, until 1859, it was already a process of reflection and development of economic theory.
In 1844 K. Marx in "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts" expounded the concept of alienation. Marx identified the different sides of labor alienation: alienation from the working of his human essence, objectification of labor, the alienation between people. The more hired labor, the more intense the power of capital over him. That is, alienated labor displays a human relationship, thereby making it an incomplete and "partial" being. Where was the conclusion about the necessity of the revolutionary elimination of alienation, the abolition of private property and the establishment of a communist society - the image of a truly human relationships of society. To everyone can develop their own abilities and work freely, so that everyone can become a universal being.
In 1845, in the "Theses on Feuerbach" K. Marx criticized the contemplative nature of the progenitor of materialism. Marx highlighted the role of practice as the basis of knowledge and formulated the principle of the unity of theory and practice. One of its aspects - the materialist conception of history - has been developed together with Engels in the "Communist Manifesto."
The basic postulates of Marxist philosophy
"Capital" - the main work of Karl Marx, written on the basis of dialectical materialist approach was first published in 1867.
The basic ideas and postulates of Marxist philosophy can be assembled in three groups:
Group 1: The compound of the dialectic and materialism. The organic unity of the dialectic materialism is provided with thinking skills and the ability to remake the world in tune with the objective laws, as well as its development trends.
Group 2: The dialectical-materialist conception of history. The most important concept: the social being determines social consciousness, as well as the public consciousness has the opposite effect on the breed of his own social existence. The material life of society or social existence consists of the production of material and spiritual wealth with the direct human existence, not associated with the production of (family life) and the process of interaction between nature and society. That is determined by the element has an obvious impact on the defining element, and vice versa.
Group 3: A new understanding of the social role of philosophy. principles were formulated understanding of the problems of modern philosophy, which is to change the world, not only in different ways to explain it.
The new role of his philosophy of Marx and Engels saw in the revolutionary and radical change in the world.