Atherosclerosis is a common disease of the arteries of the muscular-elastic and elastic type.
Lipid or cholesterol deposits in the form of plaques are located in the inner shell of the arteries of the heart, the brain, the aorta and in the branches of the aorta.
This leads to proliferation of connective tissue with subsequent sclerotization, narrowing of the lumen.
The blood supply of an organ that feeds through the affected arteries becomes insufficient, which inevitably leads to the formation of foci of necrosis, that is, to a heart attack, stroke or gangrene.
Symptoms of atherosclerosis
The clinical picture of atherosclerosis depends onPrevalence and localization of the process, as well as the degree of narrowing of the arteries. At the initial stage of the disease, the patient may not even guess how serious pathological processes develop in the body.
Subsequently, atherosclerotic changes,Localized in the aorta, cardiac, renal, cerebral arteries or in the limbs, manifest certain symptoms. Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries of the patient is worried about angina, myocardial infarction may occur. A harbinger of such serious diseases are the symptoms of a prolonged sense of heaviness behind the sternum, a burning pain in the region of the heart.
If the vessels of the kidneys are affected, the patient worriesSevere arterial hypertension. With atherosclerosis of the cerebral arteries, work capacity, memory, attention is significantly reduced. The patient experiences rapid fatigue, dizziness, chronic insomnia begins. The most terrible complication of cerebrovascular accidents is a stroke.
When the arteries of the limbs are damaged, the patient is disturbed by intermittent claudication, swelling.
Diagnosis of atherosclerosis
If a patient is suspected of having atherosclerosis,Instrumental and laboratory methods of research. Identify a violation of lipid metabolism, conduct X-ray examination, ultrasound of blood vessels. On the basis of complex diagnostic methods, the doctor has no doubt about the correct diagnosis.
Treatment of atherosclerosis
The patient is prescribed pharmaceutical preparations,Reducing the level of lipids, normalizing oxygenation and trophic tissue, rheological properties of blood. Also recommended are medications that increase the elasticity of the vascular walls. If atherosclerotic plaques threaten normal blood supply, reconstructive surgery is prescribed.
Prevention of atherosclerosis
For the prevention of atherosclerosis it is necessary to refuseFrom bad habits, move more, get rid of excess weight, observe a diet with a high content of vegetables and fruits and a low content of animal fats. It is also recommended to undergo a medical examination in a timely manner and treat chronic diseases.