At the beginning of the 16th century, the formation of the Russian state was completed. The Russian people conquered and developed new territories - Siberia, the Volga region.
The bright figure of the 16th century is the first Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible, who made many state transformations.
How did people live at that time?
The two main social classes in Russia in the 16th century- Boyars and peasants. Boyars lived in tall wooden teremes, which were skillfully built in 3-4 floors. Down below there lived courtyard serfs, and on the upper floors the owners of the house. Such houses were fenced with palisades for protection from thieves and robbers. In the yard there were a lot of outbuildings for livestock and fodder. It is interesting that boyar women could not leave the house without a demand, most of the time they were locked up in their private rooms on the upper floors of the house, doing needlework.
Dressed boyars in the oriental manner - in longThe brocade robes, caftans and fur coats, which were not removed during the warm season. The sign of the family was not only rich clothes, but also a fat body, and also a long beard. To keep the shape, the boyars often ate a lot and drank too much alcohol.
In his patrimony the boyar was a full-fledged master,Could execute or pardon his serfs. For such free living, he paid taxes to the prince (and then to the tsarist) treasury. If the farm did not go well, the boyar could himself enter the royal service.
There were many servants working in the boyars' patrimonies, butThe most part of the population consisted of black-sucked peasants who lived in small villages and worked together: plowed, sowed, corroded the forest. Later, family plots were allocated - land for sole use, but all the same hard work was taken to do together.
Peasant huts were not like the boyars' tenements - they were wooden, in one room. The peasants' clothes were homespun, shoes were not worn before the onset of cold weather.
Female peasant women, like men, workedCollectively. Sometimes in the evenings, after a hard day of work, gatherings with songs and dances were arranged for the youth. The peasants married early. Age for the young man was considered to be 16-18 years old, for a girl - 12-13 years. The weddings were arranged late in the autumn, after all the fieldwork. Traditional marriage took place with the bride's ransom, wedding ceremony and a three-day feast.
Literacy centers in the 16th century were monasteries, books and manuscripts were kept in them. The peasants and the greater part of the boyars were illiterate.