All participles are formed from verbs, they denote the feature of the subject by action and answer the questions: which, which, what, what.
Before proceeding with the formation of participles, repeat the studied material about the verb.
Write the verb 1 of the conjugation, for example,"Smile". Form participles from the present tense verb. Add the suffix -Yes - (- yush-) and you will receive the participle "smiling." To form a true participle from the verb 2 of the conjugation, add the suffix -aas - (- jasch-). (Breathe - breathing, painting - painting, holding - holding).
Consider two phrases: Told a story told by a girl. In the first case, the story is told by someone, then the participle is passive. In the second phrase there is one who told, so the participle "narrator" is valid. Learn the difference between real and passive participles and you will not have problems when forming them from verbs.
Actual past participlesAre formed from the foundations of an indefinite form of transitive and intransitive verbs of perfect and imperfect type with the help of suffixes -wm-, -sh-. The suffix -w-attach to the basics that end in the vowel, and the suffix -w- to the basics that end in the consonant. (Build - build, carry - carry, replace - replace).
To obtain the present passive passages, add the suffix -em - (- om-) to the stem of verb 1, 2 conjugations to -im-. (Read - read, chase-driven).
Passionate past participlesTry to form from the foundations of an indefinite form of transitive verbs by means of the suffixes -nn-, -en- (-yen-) and -t-. (Lose - lost, solved - solved, compressed - compressed). Suffixes -nn- and -enne- (- ynn-) of complete passive participles correspond to the suffixes -n- and -en- (-yen-) of short passive participles. (Cleaned - removed, dried - dried).