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How to arrange a car

How does the car

The car - a system in which a part of the set of nodes running smoothly.

Some of them bring the car in motion, others provide security, and others responsible for the ease of use and comfort.



The basis of the car is a load-bearing structure -chassis. It takes care of all the loads from the side of passengers, cargo, and the other body sites. In some cars the body itself takes over the load, and then he called a monocoque body. In this case, any of its modifications, reducing the strength (for example, alteration in the convertible) shall be accompanied by the addition of elements that take the burden elsewhere. On the chassis are arranged axles - front and rear. The first of these is turning. The force of the steering wheel are transmitted to it via the steering or power.


The mechanical energy to move the carproduced from the chemical energy of fuel into an internal combustion engine. It can operate on gasoline, gas or diesel. In modern cars used four-stroke engines, but in the past produced car "Trabant" and "Wartburg" with two-stroke engines. The work of the injectors and spark the modern engine coordinates the miniature computer - an electronic control unit. Previously you used a relatively simple mechanical, electrical and electronic components. Mechanical energy generated by the engine can be used directly for the movement of the machine, either first converted into an electrical generator, an electric motor and then - again mechanical. The second principle is used in hybrid cars. And it has a small generator in a conventional car. From him eat all consumers and battery charging. The energy stored in the battery is used to start including a starter motor. From prevents overcharging the battery voltage regulator automatically controls the excitation winding of the generator. Also, the motor of the mechanical energy can be transmitted to the power steering pump.


Hybrid cars are of two types. In the first internal combustion engine can cause the machine to move immediately, and the motor - to "help" him under heavy braking. In the second wheel always rotates only by an electric motor. In both cases, the traction battery is charged by the generator, and when it is needed - is discharged to the motor. This leads to the internal combustion engine is a low-power, freeing it from the peak (traction battery serves as a buffer). The engine always runs at close to optimal, and in the hybrid vehicle of the second kind you can even turn off when the charge in the traction battery is sufficient, and run when it should be recharged.


A gearbox - mechanical orautomatic - the mechanical energy is transmitted to the front or rear axle, and four-wheel drive vehicles - on both bridges. Manual transmission equipped with manual shift lever, and the machine it has a third pedal - the clutch. On it is necessary to press when shifting gears, otherwise the box fails. Automatic takes a great deal of work to change the gear ratio itself. In machines with two pedals it: gas (for adjusting the engine speed) and the brake.


The brake system in carsHydraulic. Rules of traffic is prohibited to make changes in her self. For safety reasons, it is made double-circuit. If one of the circuits of the second continues to operate, albeit with an increase in braking distance. In larger vehicles, such as buses, trolley buses, pneumatic brake system. This is due to the fact that they contain compressors, other propelling mechanisms including doors. For the safety of the driver and passengers, in addition to the brake system, and meet other components: an energy absorbing steering column, airbags, safety belts and tensioners. It is believed that the clip-passenger does not trust the driver and his skills, his insults. This is not true! From the accident completely no one is immune, and if it does occur, the belt significantly reduces the severity of injuries, if not prevent them.


Other parts of the vehicle include lightinstruments, wiper, rear window heater, the heater (and sometimes air-conditioning), catalytic converter, dashboard with speedometer, tachometer and other gauges, alarm, radio, and others. The white light devices can be located only in the front (except for the license plate light which is white and the back), red - just behind, and yellow - the front and rear and on the sides. Appointment of lighting devices is the illumination of the road, marking the dimensions of the car, as well as informing pedestrians and other drivers on the turns and stops. Ignition switch allows you to start the engine only to someone who has a key.

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