The foundation is the basis of any home.
Building construction begins with site preparation and laying of the foundation.
To ensure the durability of the house, the foundation must be reliable and durable.
In modern construction uses several types of foundations, different technology of their erection.
General information about foundations
The foundation of the structure plays an important role, becauseIts mission - to support the weight of the house and securely distribute it across the surface area of the buildings. The main requirement for such a base is that it should be very reliable, that is not have distortions and not to sag not exhibit cracks. Ensure that these properties can only be the exact observance of technology and rules of construction basement.
In preparation for the construction of the house, it should be borne in mind thatfoundation installation costs may reach 20% of the total cost estimate of the construction costs. But to save on building a strong foundation in any case not worth it.
If the foundation is poorly placed, fix bugs and flaws then it will be extremely difficult.</ Blockquote>
For the construction of the foundations of modern residentialhouses are widely used brick, concrete and reinforced concrete. Also used a combination of different materials, including sand, gravel, wood and metal parts. Certain types of foundations require prior erecting formwork and fill it with cement, as well as additional reinforcement.
The bases conventionally divided into two major types: on the pile and those that build on the natural basis. The latter type, depending on the form and method of setting the ground includes a belt, slab and pier foundation.
Without specific knowledge and building preparationnot always possible to exactly determine which type of foundation is required for a particular building. It is important nature of the soil, depth its freezing, the availability of groundwater. It should not be ruled out on the number of storeys of the future construction and job type. To make the right decision, you need to have at least an initial idea of what are the foundations.
The foundation of the belt type
Strip foundation is simpletechnology and most other types of use in the individual low-rise building. At the same time it is characterized by a certain labor and considerable expense of building materials.
At its core band foundation isa strip of reinforced concrete, which is directly on the perimeter of the future building. This tape is put under the walls of all the buildings, including the interior partitions. Strip foundation keeps its shape around the perimeter of the cross section. The foundation of this type should be selected if the house is built with brick, stone or concrete walls, which have a relatively heavy overlap.
Pour strip foundation is slightly lowerthe level of soil freezing, but usually no deeper than half a meter from the ground. The thickness of the foundation is determined by the material of the walls, their thickness and the calculated pressure force structures on the ground.
There are buried foundation belt typeand melkozaglublenny. The latter type is more suitable for wooden houses. The device buried foundation well in that case, if you plan to equip the house garage or basement.
For this type of foundation characterizedlocation of all buildings and corners at the intersections of the walls of the special pillars. It used it mostly for lightweight construction houses. Pier foundation is reliable, economical and often requires no additional waterproofing work.
Pier foundation - a kind of systempillars erected at the points, which will carry the increased load. Columns may be made of concrete or brick, the distance between the structural elements is generally half to two meters. The free space between the individual pillars, usually fall asleep coarse sand or gravel.
You should know that for the erection of buildings with a basement garage and pier foundation is not suitable.</ Blockquote>
The foundation pile type
Pile foundations - the perfect solution for anyonewhen the structure is being built on the ground is not too steady. Most of these technologies are used in the construction of large buildings with multiple floors. The basis of the whole structure - columns (piles), have pointed lower end.
Piles screwed or driven into the ground with the help ofspecial equipment. Such large pillars pass freely through the layers of soil moving, pushing the ends in a more solid foundation. Each pile is able to withstand a load of several tons. The upper ends of the piles are connected by horizontal beams to form a solid and reliable design.
This type of foundation ismonolithic reinforced concrete slab-type, which is placed under the entire area of the building. The price of such a foundation is quite high, because its construction requires substantial expenditure on excavation work. Usually slab foundation is used in the construction of small domov- with plate becomes the basis of sex.
The advantage of the foundation slab that heIt can be used on any kind of ground, regardless of the level of groundwater. Solid floor is not afraid of even large displacement of soil layers. On the slab foundation building frame and brick houses, as well as the structure of the timber height in one or two floors.