Chemical compounds have a classification, which is based on their structure and properties.
Understand in the general case, how to receive them, and to know the differences is not only for schoolchildren who study chemistry, but for every adult person.
Acids are such chemical compounds,Which can decompose into cations or attach anions. Different scientists classify these substances a little differently, and the most common is the division into Brønsted acids and Lewis acids. Brønsted acids can give a hydrogen cation, and Lewis acids are able to take in their structure a pair of electrons, forming a covalent bond.
Household understanding of acids is usually closer to acidsBrønsted. In aqueous solutions, these acids form a large number of free compounds H3O, also this compound is called hydroxonium. Its charge is +1 (charge of oxygen -2, and three hydrogen atoms give +3, eventually it turns out +1). It is the hydroxonium ions that determine the property of acids, according to which they are known in everyday life: this is the ability to exert an irritating effect. Just these ions cause the acid taste of acid solutions and change the color of the indicators.
Hydrogen atoms in the composition of acids are mobile, and they can be replaced by metal atoms, then salts are formed consisting of a metal cation and an anion of the so-called acid residue.
Salts are combinations of cations and anions, in a roleWhich is an acid residue. In aqueous solutions, the salts are able to dissociate (as the chemistry calls the decay reaction) into these components. They are obtained by mixing acids with bases, this reaction produces salt and water. Salts have a property to dissolve perfectly in water.
The cation can be not only a metal, but also an ammonium group NH4, phosphonium PH4 and others, among them organic compounds and complex cations.
Oxides, also called oxides, are compoundsDifferent elements with two oxygen atoms, while oxygen forms a bond with the least electronegative element. Virtually all compounds with O2 oxygen are oxides.
Oxides are a very common type of compounds. These include water, rust, carbon dioxide, sand. They are very common not only on planet Earth, but in the whole universe. Oxides do not include substances containing the O3 group (ozone).
Differences between oxides, salts and acids
Oxides can be easily distinguished from salts and acids byOxygen group O2. For example, it is H2O. An indication of salts is the presence in them of a cation, in the role of which metal usually acts, and an acid residue. For example, CuCO2, where copper is a cation, and CO2 is an acid residue. The acids decompose into the acid residue and the H3O group when combined with water. In acid-metal compounds, hydrogen is replaced by a metal (this is a cation) and a salt is formed. An example is all known sulfuric acid - H2SO4.